Alan Mould (1942-2005)


Nat Map Technical Assistant 1966-1971


By Laurie McLean November 2021


Alan Mould.

Edited extract from Mould family image kindly provided by Evelyn Browne.


Alan Mould was a popular and diligent Field Assistant, and later Technical Assistant based from National Mapping’s Melbourne office from the mid-1960s to the early 1970s.  To his fellow field survey workers, Alan was known as Large Man, Mr Large or Fat Boy; these forms of address referred to Alan’s larger size frame.  Alan was greatly respected by his work colleagues and supervisors alike.  He had a quiet, kindly demeanour, a typically Australian sense of humour and a good hearted nature.


However, Alan did not have a particularly easy life.  In the 1970s, he had helped his younger brother Geoff deal with and survive lymphoma.  After caring for his wife Clare for some time during her terminal illness, he was widowed in 1994.  Alan was again widowed when his second wife Joan died suddenly in 2005.  Sadly, Alan had become estranged from his father Sam by the 1960s and from his youngest son Russell in the 1990s after Clare’s death.


Alan joined the Division of National Mapping’s Melbourne office as a Field Assistant in mid-1966.  During his 5 years or so of service with Nat Map, Alan worked in the Topographic Survey Branch that was then based in the historic Rialto Building at 497 Collins Street in the Melbourne central business district.


Much of Alan’s time with Nat Map was spent in the field, mainly undertaking surveys for horizontal or vertical control for photogrammetric mapping in remote areas of Australia.  During the latter part of his Nat Map service, Alan was involved in map accuracy and map examination surveys in the Mackay area of North Queensland.


Alan established many enduring friendships during his time with Nat Map; including with Neil Robert (Luigi) Fenton who was a Technical Officer (circa 1960-1968); Murray Porteous who was a Technical Assistant (1966-1969); Barry Paul (Paulo) McCormack who became a Senior Technical Officer (1967‑1990s), Brian Shaddick who was a Field Assistant (1970-1972) and who Alan mentored and helped settle in Melbourne after arriving unaccompanied from London; and the author who had various roles in Nat Map between 1969 and 1987.


When Alan joined Nat Map in 1966 he had already established life‑long friendships with a number of Nat Mappers from the Clayton Group.  These Nat Mappers together with their parents and siblings had all lived within a few blocks of each other at Clayton in the 1950s and 1960s.  As well as Alan Mould, the Clayton Group comprised Terry Douglas (Technical Officer Nat Map 1960‑1971), Bruce O’Connor (Draftsman and later Senior Training Officer Nat Map 1960s-1980s), John Gray (Field Assistant Nat Map 1966), and Bruce’s younger brother Lawrie O’Connor (Technical Assistant Nat Map 1967-1972).


Between 1967 and 1969, Alan’s brother-in-law Terry Wignell was a Field Assistant with Nat Map’s then Melbourne-based Geodetic Survey Branch.  During these 3 field seasons Terry worked on various sections of the high precision baseline traverse between Muchea (north of Perth) and Thursday Island in Torres Strait.  For more information on Terry Wignell see Appendix A.


During breaks while on Nat Map field survey work, Alan Mould would sometimes go fossicking for gold, opals or other gems.  Alan usually had a gold panning dish amongst his personal equipment.  Like many of his Nat Map peers, Alan also enjoyed a quiet drink or more.


Around 1955, the Mould family had moved to Shandeau at 259 Clayton Road Clayton, near the corner of Shandeau Avenue; see image below.  Alan’s sister Evelyn recalled that at that time, home in the developing suburb of Clayton was like living in the country.  The Douglas family had lived at 49 Madeline Street, the O’Connors lived at 51 Madeline Street, and the Grays lived at 6 Dixon Street.


The Mould family home at Shandeau, 259 Clayton Road Clayton in the 1950s.

Edited image kindly provided by Evelyn Browne from Ancestry web site.


Early life

Alan Mould was born on 31 May 1942 in the family residence, a 2-storey Victorian terrace, at 34 Capel Street West Melbourne; see image below where the entrance to Number 34 is the door on the left behind the nature strip garden.


Alan was the first of the 4 children born to Samuel Joseph Mould (1898–1980) and Winifred Alice (Win) Redding née Ritchie (1917-2001).  Win had had 2 children from her earlier marriage with Walter William (Wally) Redding (1908–1980).  Alan’s 2 older half‑siblings were: Walter James (Wally) (1936‑2008) and Marion Eileen.  After Win’s marriage to Samuel Mould in 1946, Wally and Marion took the surname Mould.


34 Capel Street West Melbourne in 2021

Google streetview image.


Alan’s 3 younger siblings were: Evelyn Jean who was born in Melbourne on 11 February 1945, Dianne Elizabeth who was born in Melbourne on 28 June 1949 and died in Bendigo on 3 March 2009, and Geoffrey David who was born in Melbourne on 21 June 1951 and died at Bendigo on 2 December 2021.


On an electoral roll for 1943, Alan’s parents Samuel Joseph Mould and Winifred Alice Mould were listed as residing at 34 Capel Street West Melbourne and being occupied as a storeman and in home duties, respectively.


On electoral rolls for 1949 and 1954, Alan’s parents were listed as residing at 333 High Street St Kilda and being occupied as a machinist and in home duties, respectively.  No 333 High Street was on the west side at the corner of Blanche Street and today is a 3-storey unit block.  Following redevelopment of St Kilda Junction and the widening of Nepean Highway in the 1960s, High Street between the Junction and Carlisle Street was renamed St Kilda Road.


Win Mould at St Kilda in the late 1940s with children Alan, Evelyn and Marion.

Edited image kindly provided by Evelyn Browne from Ancestry web site.


School days

Alan initially attended the St Kilda Primary School (No 1479) that was located at 2B Brighton Road; just south of Carlisle Street.  During Alan’s time at the school it was also known as Brighton Road Primary School.


St Kilda (Brighton Road) Primary School in October 2019.

Google streetview image.


Later, Alan attended Caulfield Technical School at the corner of Dandenong Road and Railway Avenue (now Sir John Monash Drive) Caulfield.  Alan left Caulfield Tech at 16 years of age in 1958.


The former Caulfield Technical School, now Monash University, Caulfield campus.

Google streetview image 2019.


About Alan Mould’s mother

Alan Mould’s mother Winifred Alice (Win) Ritchie was born at Mooroopna on 30 May 1917.  Win was the third of the 10 children born to James Currie (Jim) Ritchie (1869–1941) and his wife Lucy Irene Ritchie née McKay (1894-1963).  Jim and Lucy Ritchie had married on 30 April 1913 at Shepparton.  Win Ritchie’s siblings were: Elizabeth Amy (Lizzie) (1913-1960), Francis James (Frank) (1915-1974), William Frederick (Billy) (1918-1951), John Edward (Jack) (1920–1984), Agnes Daisy (Nancy) 1923–2013), Ellen May (1925–1926), Joseph (Joe) (1927–1951), Frederick (Freddie) (1928–1975), and Angus Robert (1932–2012).  All of the Ritchie children were born at Mooroopna.  Win’s younger brother Joe Ritchie died of illness while serving in Korea in 1951; for more information see Appendix B.


Alan Mould’s maternal grandfather Jim Ritchie was born on 28 November 1869 at Emerald Hill (South Melbourne).  By 1903, Jim was working as a labourer at Port Melbourne and from at least 1914 to 1937 he was working as a labourer at Mooroopna.  On a 1937 electoral roll, Jim and Lucy Ritchie were listed as residing in Echuca Road Mooroopna.


Jim Ritchie died at Mooroopna on 14 June 1941, he was 71 years of age.  His remains were buried at the Mooroopna Cemetery.  Alan’s maternal grandmother Lucy Ritchie was born at Mooroopna on 23 November 1894, she died at home in Carlton on 2 March 1963 at 68 years of age.  Prior to her death Lucy was residing with her youngest son Angus Robert Ritchie (labourer) at 630 Drummond Street Carlton.  Lucy’s remains were cremated at the Fawkner Memorial Park Cemetery on 6 March 1963.


Win Mould, circa age 70 years, in her garden at Shepparton East in 1977.

Edited image kindly provided by Evelyn Browne from Ancestry web site.


Win Ritchie’s first marriage

At Mooroopna on 12 August 1933, Alan Mould’s mother Win Ritchie married Walter William (Wally) Redding (1908–1980).  Win was then 16 years of age and Wally was 25 years of age.  Win and Wally Redding were to have 2 children: Walter James (Wally) (1936–2008) and Marion Eileen.


Wally Redding was born at Southwark, London on 12 April 1908.  He died in Melbourne on 3 September 1980, at 72 years of age.  On electoral rolls for 1931 and 1936, Walter William Redding was listed as a labourer care of Maloney Brothers, Mooroopna.  (The Maloney Brothers were farmers at Mooroopna and their sheep and lambs were often listed in sales reports during the 1930s.)  On a 1937 electoral roll, Wally Redding was listed as a labourer at Tynong.


Win Redding was not listed on any of the above, or later, electoral rolls with her then husband.  From the advent of compulsory voting in Australia in 1924 and until 1973, voting rights were not given to people under 21 years of age.  Hence people under 21 years of age could not register to vote during those years.


On a 1942 electoral roll, Wally Redding was listed as residing at Moonee Ponds and being occupied as a furnaceman.  But by then he and Win were not living together.


Win and Wally Redding’s marriage did not endure.  Brief listing reports of divorce proceedings being underway before Mr Justice Gavan Duffy were carried in The Argus newspaper on 6 February 1942 and 29 August 1944.  However, a report on the granting of a decree absolute to dissolve the marriage was not discovered.  Win Redding and her former husband both remarried in 1946, thus their divorce would have been granted by then.


In 1946, Wally Redding married Harriet (Hazel) Aldous (1904-1969).  Hazel was born at Rushworth and died at Brunswick.  There were no children from their marriage.  On a 1954 electoral roll, Wally and Hazel were listed as residing at 400 Lygon Street East Brunswick and being engaged as shopkeepers.  On a 1963 roll, Wally was listed as a shopkeeper residing at 41 Mitchell Street Northcote and Hazel resided at the same address and was engaged in home duties.


On a 1980 electoral roll, Wally was listed as residing at 6 Wallara Crescent Croydon with no occupation.  As mentioned, Wally Redding died in Melbourne on 3 September 1980, he was 72 years of age.  Wally’s remains were buried in the Methodist section at Fawkner Memorial Park Cemetery on 11 September 1980.


Win Ritchie’s second marriage

Win Redding (née Ritchie) married her second husband Samuel Joseph (Sam) Mould (1898-1980) in Victoria on 26 June 1946.  Win was then 29 years of age and Sam Mould was 48 years of age.  Win’s 2 children from her previous marriage, Wally and Marion, stayed with their mother after her second marriage and became part of the Mould family; taking the surname Mould.


From at least 1941, Win Redding and Sam Mould were living together as man and wife in a common law relationship pending the finalisation of Win’s divorce from her previous husband Wally Redding.  Alan Mould was the first of Win and Sam Mould’s 4 children.  As mentioned earlier, Alan Mould was born on 31 May 1942 when his parents were residing at 34 Capel Street West Melbourne.  Alan’s 3 younger siblings were all born in Melbourne: namely, Evelyn Jean, Dianne Elizabeth, and Geoffrey David; the latter 2 siblings were born after their parents’ marriage.


As discussed earlier, after Capel Street the Mould family lived at 333 High Street St Kilda (at least from 1949 to 1954).  Here Sam Mould worked as a machinist.  The family then moved to 259 Clayton Road Clayton (circa 1955).  On 1963 electoral rolls Win Mould was listed as residing at 1 Munster Avenue Carnegie; together with Marion, Alan and Terry and Evelyn Wignell.  On another 1963 electoral roll, Win was listed as residing at 18 Adams Street Quarry Hill (Bendigo) with Sam Mould who had no listed occupation.  On a 1968 electoral roll, Win Mould was listed as residing at 18 Adams Street Quarry Hill together with Marion and Alan.  On a 1972 electoral roll, Win and Marion Mould were listed as residing at 6/45 Spring Street Prahran.  On a 1977 electoral roll, Win Mould was listed as residing with Evelyn and Terry Wignell at Boundary Road Shepparton East.  On a 1980 electoral roll, Win Mould was listed as residing with Barbara and Geoffrey Mould at 17 Battery Street Long Gully (Bendigo).


Vale Win Mould

In January 2001, Win Mould was living with Evelyn and Terry Wignell at 57 Minchin Road Tatura (Ardmona).  Sadly, Win Mould died at Ardmona on 21 January 2001; she was 83 years of age.  Win Mould’s remains were later buried in the Anglican section of the Rushworth Cemetery; Section 9, Grave 15.


Win Mould’s grave at Rushworth Cemetery.

Image kindly provided by Evelyn Browne from Ancestry web site.


About Alan Mould’s father

Alan Mould’s father, Samuel Joseph Mould, was born at St Peters Place, Warrington, Lancashire on 24 May 1898.  Warrington is on the north side of the River Mersey about 25 kilometres east of Liverpool.  Samuel was the second of the 3 children born to Samuel Mould (1868-1954) and his wife Elizabeth Mould née Bromfield (1867-1934).  Samuel Mould and Elizabeth Bromfield married at Nantwich, Cheshire in July 1895.  Their 3 children were: David (1897-1917), Samuel Joseph (1898-1980), and Emma (1899-1979).


David Mould was killed in action during World War I while serving in Belgium as a Gunner with the Royal Garrison Artillery; for further information on David Mould see Appendix C.  As shown in the image below, Alan Mould wore a tattoo of an Artillery badge on his upper right forearm.  While Alan had served with the Citizen Military Forces, he once told the author that his tattoo was also a memento of his late paternal uncle.  (The badge of the Royal Australian Artillery is similar to that of the Royal Artillery.)


Samuel Joseph Mould’s father (Alan Mould’s paternal grandfather) was born at Grinshill, Shropshire on 11 November 1868 and died at Warrington in June 1954; at 85 years of age.  Elizabeth Bromfield (Alan Mould’s paternal grandmother) was born at Crewe, Cheshire in January 1867 and died at Warrington in June 1934; she was 67 years of age.  On an England Census record for 1901, Samuel and Elizabeth Mould and their 3 children were listed as residing at 26 St Peters Place Warrington and Samuel was listed as a drayman working for a brewery.  On a 1911 England Census record, the 5 members of the Mould family were listed as residing at 37 Laira Street Warrington and Samuel was again listed as a brewery drayman.


Alan Mould relaxing on a day off in the Mackay area North Queensland in 1970.

Image kindly provided by Brian Shaddick.


Samuel Joseph Mould’s World War I service

During World War I, Samuel Joseph Mould served in the British Army as a Private, Regimental Number 19612, with the Royal Scots Fusiliers.  It is not clear when Samuel Mould joined the British Army or when he was discharged.  However, his entries on World War I Medal Rolls show he served initially with the 6th Battalion, Royal Scots Fusiliers and later with the 6/7th Battalion of that Regiment.  The Medal Rolls also show he was awarded the British War Medal (1914-1918) (Army) and the Allied Victory Medal (1914-1919); see image below.  Samuel’s award of the Victory medal confirms that he served in an area of active fighting during World War I.


Owing to losses sustained during heavy fighting in the early part of the war, the 6th Battalion, Royal Scots Fusiliers was amalgamated with the Regiment’s 7th Battalion to form the 6/7th Battalion on 7 May 1916.  As Samuel had initially served in the 6th Battalion he must have joined the Royal Scots Fusiliers before May 1916.


The minimum age for service in the British Army during World War I was 18 years.  As Samuel Mould was born on 24 May 1898, he could not have legally joined the British Army until 24 May 1916; either as a volunteer or a conscript (after compulsory service was introduced in March 1916).  As he was in the 6th Battalion before its amalgamation on 7 May 1916, implies that Samuel bumped his age up to join that Army when he was no more than 17 years old; or perhaps even younger.


British World War I service medals similar to those awarded to Private Samuel Mould.

British War Medal (1914-1918) (Army) on left and Allied Victory Medal (1914-1919).

Image kindly provided by Evelyn Browne from Ancestry web site.


Further information on the Royal Scots Fusiliers and the World War I service of that Regiment’s 6th Battalion and 6/7th Battalion is provided at Appendix D.  As further discussed in that appendix, Private Samuel Mould’s commanding officer in the 6th Battalion in France during the early part of 1916 was the future World War II British Prime Minister Winston Churchill who was then serving on the Western Front as a Lieutenant-Colonel.


Samuel Joseph Mould’s post-World War I travels 1921-1929

Alan’s father Samuel Joseph Mould undertook several overseas voyages from England during the 1920s before eventually settling in Victoria in 1929.  In 1921, Samuel Mould travelled to New York City as a crew member onboard the Cunard Line’s RMS Aquitania of some 45 000 tons.  The then 22 years old Samuel arrived in New York on 23 February 1921 and was listed as an alien crew member employed as an assistant who had been engaged at Southampton on 15 February 1921.  A record of Samuel’s return voyage to England was not discovered.  However, he left England for Australia a year later.


Samuel Mould first came to Melbourne in 1922.  On 9 February 1922, he departed the Port of London onboard the Pacific and Orient Branch Service vessel SS Berrima bound for Melbourne.  The then 23 years old Samuel had been residing at 37 Laira Street Warrington which had been his family’s address for at least 10 years.


In 1925, the then 27 years old Samuel Mould returned to England.  He embarked at Melbourne onboard the Aberdeen and Commonwealth Line’s SS Jervis Bay and arrived at Southampton on 9 October 1925.  Samuel’s occupation was listed as salesman and his United Kingdom address was listed as 37 Laira Street Warrington.


(The Jervis Bay was requisitioned by the Royal Navy in 1939 and converted to an armed merchant cruiser and was later used as an Atlantic convoy escort.  On 5 November 1940, under Commander Fogarty Fegan RN the Jervis Bay engaged the Admiral Scheer a superior German pocket battleship in the North Atlantic about 1 400 kilometres south-southwest of Reykjavík, Iceland.  The Jervis Bay was no match for the German battleship.  Nevertheless, Fegan and his crew made their supreme sacrifice to give the 37 other vessels in convoy HX-84 a better chance to escape; however, 4 vessels were later lost to the Admiral Scheer.  The Jervis Bay had been the sole convoy escort on that section of the route from Halifax to England.  On the personal recommendation of King George VI, Fegan was posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross for his ship’s action.)


In 1929, Samuel Mould returned to Australia.  He was listed as departing Southampton on 23 January 1929 onboard the Aberdeen and Commonwealth Line’s SS Largs Bay.  On the departure manifest he was listed as a motor assistant who had been residing at 37 Laira Street Warrington.  Samuel was listed as arriving at Fremantle on 22 February 1929 and his destination address was listed as care of Mrs Bodle, Indama, Gillies Street Essendon.  (Mary Bodle, home duties; Reginald Bodle, printer, and Thomas Bodle, ship’s steward were listed as residing at Gillies Street Essendon on a 1927 electoral roll.)


Samuel Joseph Mould in Victoria in the 1930s

Alan Mould’s father Samuel Joseph Mould was first discovered on an Australian electoral roll for 1931.  On that roll, Samuel was listed as residing at Birchip and being occupied as a labourer.  On an electoral roll for 1934, Samuel was listed as residing at 1 Hambledon Street Glenferrie as a labourer.


On electoral rolls for 1934, 1935, and 1937, Samuel Mould was listed as residing at Windarra, Birchip and being occupied as a labourer.


In the late 1930s, Samuel Mould is understood to have operated at boarding house in Melbourne.


Samuel Joseph Mould’s World War II service

Samuel Joseph Mould served in the Militia Forces for some 9 months during World War II.  While residing at Birchip, Samuel enlisted on 3 October 1939; he was then 42 years of age.  Samuel’s place of enlistment was given as Melbourne.  He was posted as a Private, Service Number V80231, to the 12th Garrison Battalion.  Private Samuel Mould was discharged from the Australian Army on 15 July 1940.


Garrison Battalions were part of the Militia structure for Homeland Defence.  Their role was to man fixed defences and protect vulnerable points.  Generally, Garrison personnel were Class B men, mostly those between 48 and 55 years of age who had war service prior to September 1939; mainly World War I veterans.


The 12th Garrison Battalion was raised in Victoria by Lieutenant‑Colonel Theodore Ulrich DSO and Bar (1888-1963)  The Battalion was based at Broadmeadows but had 20 separate guard groups that were posted to vital locations throughout Victoria.


Samuel Joseph Mould in Victoria 1940s-1980

As mentioned earlier, on a 1943 electoral roll, Samuel Joseph Mould and Winifred Alice Mould, were listed as residing at 34 Capel Street West Melbourne and being occupied as a storeman and in home duties, respectively.  On electoral rolls for 1949 and 1954 Samuel and Win Mould were listed as residing at 333 High Street St Kilda and being occupied as a machinist and in home duties, respectively.


Also while residing at St Kilda, Samuel Mould worked as a uniformed Peace Officer Guard at the Army’s Albert Park Barracks.  Peace Officer Guards were uniformed Commonwealth officers who primarily provided physical security at critical government locations.  POGs were established as part of the Commonwealth Police Force in 1925.


In 1953, Sam Mould took his daughter Evelyn (and possibly some of her siblings) to the first motor car racing meeting at the Albert Park circuit.  This was circuit was the venue for the first Australian Grand Prix that was held that year.


As also mentioned previously, from around 1955, Samuel and Win Mould and their children lived at Shandeau, 259 Clayton Road Clayton.  While living at Clayton, Win and Samuel Mould’s marriage broke down and they separated with Samuel leaving the family.  However, on a 1963 electoral roll Win and Samuel Mould were both listed as living at 18 Adams Street Bendigo.  On this roll, Samuel had no listed occupation and Win was listed as being occupied with home duties.  Apparently Win and Samuel Mould’s marriage reconciliation did not endure.


On electoral rolls for 1967 and 1968, Samuel Mould was listed as residing at 83 Allingham Street Golden Square (Bendigo) with no occupation.  On electoral rolls for 1972, 1977 and 1980, Samuel Mould was listed as residing at 75 Sternberg Street Kennington (Bendigo) with no occupation.


Vale Samuel Mould

Samuel Joseph Mould died at Bendigo on 27 October 1980; he was 82 years of age.  Samuel Mould’s funeral service was held on 29 October 1980; afterwards Samuel’s remains were buried at the Bendigo Public Cemetery (Lawn 5, Grave 46247).  Probate for Samuel’s Will was granted on 25 May 1981; the probate documentation listed Samuel as a retired clerk.


Alan Mould’s military service 1950s-1960s

From his late teens, while residing at Clayton in the 1950s or in the early 1960s, Alan Mould served part-time with the Citizen Military Forces which has since been renamed the Army Reserve.  Alan is believed to have served with a CMF artillery unit but further details on the time and location of Alan’s CMF service were not discovered.


Alan Mould in the Victorian Railways circa 1959-1964

Prior to joining Nat Map in mid-1966, Alan had spent about 5 years or so as a clerk in the Traffic Branch of the Victorian Railways.  Alan was formally employed by the then Victorian Railways Commissioners, the entity in charge of the organisation from 1883 to 1973.  Headed by the Chief Traffic Manager, the Traffic Branch operated all passenger and goods services including road services.  The Branch provided the staff who operated the trains (drivers and guards) and worked the numerous railway stations and goods facilities throughout Victoria (station masters, clerks, station assistants, signalmen etc).


Alan joined the Victorian Railways soon after leaving school in 1958.  Alan worked as a booking clerk at Clayton railway station as well as a booking clerk at Malvern railway station under Station Master Alexander Charles (Bill) Urquhart.  Alan is believed to have left the Victorian Railways circa 1963-64.


Alan Mould at Shandeau, Clayton circa age 19 years.

Edited image kindly provided by Evelyn Browne from Ancestry web site.


Transport driver mid 1960s

Alan left the Victorian Railways while he was living with Terry and Evelyn Wignell in Munster Avenue Carnegie.  Alan then worked as a transport driver.  One of these positions was transporting furniture where Alan injured a wrist and had to have a plate inserted.  Afterwards, he stopped furniture work and drove for a dairy company prior to joining National Mapping.


National Mapping 1966-1971

As mentioned earlier, Alan Mould joined the Division of National Mapping’s Melbourne office as a temporary Field Assistant around the middle of 1966.  Throughout Alan’s time with Nat Map, the Melbourne office was located in the Rialto Building at 497 Collins Street in the City.  Alan’s early Nat Map work was in the Airborne Horizontal Control Section of the Topographic Survey Branch but he also worked on vertical control projects and later on examination surveys.


Nat Map’s Airborne Horizontal Control Section ran the airborne distance measuring (Aerodist) program in the field from 1963 to 1974.  The program intensified horizontal survey ground control for the 1:100 000 scale national topographic mapping program.


The Aerodist system was used to measure some 3 020 lines that fixed the positions of some 485 survey control stations.  The coordinated survey stations were then used for photogrammetric model control to allow the plotting of map detail and contours from aerial photography.


The Aerodist field program had 2 parts :


·       Establishing horizontal survey control stations, generally at the one degree intersections of latitude and longitude in the less settled and more remote areas over much of mainland Australia; this part was called Aerodist ground marking.

·       The second part was using an aircraft-based microwave Aerodist (Master) system to measure multiple lines between transponders (Remote units) located on the ground at the recently established (ground marked) survey control stations; this part was called Aerodist measuring.


Terry Douglas using a Remote unit in the early days of Aerodist operations.

XNatmap image.


As well as establishing the Aerodist stations (a concrete block with witness posts and nearby reference marks), ground marking operations could also include spirit level connections to nearby level bench marks or Tellurometer connections to nearby trigonometrical survey stations.


Alan Mould operating a Tellurometer at an Aerodist station in 1968.

XNatmap image.


From 1966 to 1968, Alan worked mainly on Aerodist ground marking but, as outlined below, also worked on other Nat Map field survey projects in these years.  In 1969, Alan worked with the Aerodist measuring party.  From 1970, Alan worked on examination surveys.


1966 Aerodist ground marking, Queensland and Northern Territory

During Alan Mould’s first year with National Mapping, Aerodist ground marking operations began in New South Wales around Hay during March 1966 and continued into an area of Queensland roughly bounded by Bundaberg, Charleville and Clermont.  New Field Assistants Alan Mould and Ross Gray joined the field survey party at Theodore (about 230 kilometres west of Bundaberg) towards the end of June; having driven from Melbourne in an AB120 International utility.


In 1966, the ground marking field party also included Rom Vassil, Dick Carter Richard Cavanagh, Graeme Harris, Col Cheary, Terry Douglas, Neil Fenton and Murray Porteous.  By July 1966, the survey party under Rom Vassil was working along the Flinders Highway from Charters Towers to Cloncurry.  At the end of this program at Mt Isa, Rom Vassil handed over to John Madden.


The ground marking field party then continued establishing stations in the eastern Northern Territory from the Queensland border west to the Stuart Highway and north of the Barkly Highway to Mataranka and east to Roper River.  Surveyor Ted Seton joined the survey party for some of this phase of the field work.


Nat Map’s Geodetic Survey field party under Reg Ford assisted in the Northern Territory station establishment work and in clearing existing control stations.  A helicopter was used to support the establishing of some survey control stations including 4 stations on islands in the Sir Edward Pellew Group in the Gulf of Carpentaria.  Work in the Pellew Group used the combined resources of both the ground marking and Geodetic Survey field survey parties.


To support some of the work in the Northern Territory, a Bell 47G-3B-1 helicopter (VH-AHH), was chartered from the Sydney-based Rotor Work Pty Ltd.  During the charter it operated from bases at Daly Waters, Nutwood Downs station, Borroloola, Batten Creek (at its confluence with the McArthur River which was the helicopter base for establishing the 4 survey stations in the Pellew Group), Snake Lagoon, Pungalina station (since abandoned), and Running Creek.


1967 Aerodist ground marking Northern Territory

In 1967, Alan Mould was a member of the Aerodist ground marking field party that established new survey control stations in the west of the Northern Territory.  The survey area ran north from Tennant Creek bounded by the Stuart Highway in the east to the Victoria Highway in the north; this highway runs from Katherine to Kununurra, west to the Western Australia border.


The 1967 ground marking work was assisted by a Fairchild-Hiller FH-1100 turbine engine helicopter (VH-UTZ), chartered from the Sydney-based Helicopter Utilities.  During the charter, the helicopter operated from bases at Hooker Creek (Lajamanu), Wave Hill (Kalkarindji), Victoria River Downs and Timber Creek in the Northern Territory and from Kununurra in Western Australia.


During 1967, the ground marking field survey party included: John Madden, Syd Kirkby, Dave Thompson, John Doherty, Terry Douglas, Neil Fenton, Alan Mould, John Nolton, Paul McCormack, Lawrie O'Connor, Murray Porteous, and Len Tyzack.


Ground marking field party camp at the Victoria River, Northern Territory in 1967.

XNatmap image.


1967 Spot photography survey Queensland

From late September 1967, Alan Mould worked with Terry Douglas in a small spot photography field survey party initially led and directed by Senior Surveyor Ted Seton (1920-1997).  The field party had to mark and spot photograph about 100 trigonometrical survey stations along the Queensland coast from Rockhampton to Cairns and then west from Charters Towers to Mt Isa and on to Tennant Creek.  The marking generally involved painting (with white paint), or laying out white plastic sheeting around the survey control station marks to provide photography targets that could be seen from the aircraft.


The survey field work started from Rockhampton and the field party initially worked to the south prior to moving northwards and on to Cairns.  A fixed wing light aircraft was hired at Rockhampton to fly the spot photography which was captured using a hand held Nikon camera.  Each survey station was photographed at three heights, namely 750, 1 500 and 3 000 feet above the terrain.  After overseeing operations and establishing necessary field procedures, Ted Seton returned to Melbourne and Alan Mould and Terry Douglas continued north and then west from Rockhampton.


All but two of the planned survey stations were spot photographed; Mt Pretty Tree south-west of Gayndah and one other station could not be located on the ground.


The field party used a C1300 International 1-ton 4X4 vehicle for ground support.  It was driven back to Melbourne from Tennant Creek via Alice Springs and Port Augusta at the end of the survey.  Back in Melbourne after the survey, Terry Douglas was complimented by Senior Draughtsman John Jenkins on the verticality of the spot photo images and on the absence of any part of the aircraft on the images.  This outcome was achieved by removing the aircraft door to allow the camera operator to lie on the floor with the upper part of his body protruding from the aircraft; not a safe working practice.


1968 Aerodist ground marking NSW, Queensland and Northern Territory

Ground marking field survey party members during 1968 included: John Madden, Rom Vassil, Graham McNamara, Carl McMaster, Paul McCormack, Terry Douglas, August Jenny, Alan Mould, Lawrie O’Connor, Oystein Berg, Reg Helmore, Blythe Osborne, Derek Hatley, and Ian Rushton.


The Aerodist ground marking field survey party left Melbourne in late March 1968.  Initially it undertook a few small jobs in New South Wales around Jerilderie and then Bourke, Wanaaring, and Tibooburra.  The field survey party then worked around Nockatungra and Quilpie in western Queensland before travelling to Tennant Creek in the Northern Territory to undertake helicopter‑supported marking operations in the Tanami Desert.  The helicopter used was a turbine engine Fairchild-Hiller FH-1100 aircraft (initially VH-UHE which was replaced with VH-UHD).  The helicopters were chartered from the Sydney-based Helicopter Utilities Pty Ltd.


Helicopter operations commenced north of Tennant Creek on 25 April 1968 and concluded at Alice Springs on 5 August 1968; after Alan Mould had left the ground marking field party.  During this period the field survey party operated from camps at Banka Banka, Hooker Creek (Lajamanu), Tanami Bore, Refrigerator Bore and Mount Doreen; the last 3 of these camps were on the Tanami Track.  During the autumn and winter of 1968, the Tanami Desert and other areas of Central Australia had unseasonably heavy rains and when travelling between Hooker Creek and Mount Doreen, field party vehicles were bogged on several occasions.


Bedford ZSU 201 bogged on the Tanami Track in 1968.

From left: Lawrie O’Connor, Paul McCormack, Oystein Berg, and Alan Mould.

XNatmap image.


After the Mount Doreen camp, in late May 1968, the field survey party travelled via Alice Springs to Anningie station and then to Willowra station; both on the Lander River on the eastern edge of the Tanami Desert over 200 kilometres north-west of Alice Springs.  In early July 1968, the field party established its next camp on the Hay River in the Simpson Desert over 300 kilometres east of Alice Springs.


While at the Hay River camp, the transmission on the Fairchild-Hiller FH-1100 helicopter (VH-UHD) had to be replaced.  The aircraft was unserviceable for some time.  Feral camels were around the camp, and to protect the helicopter from these curious-natured and destructive animals Alan Mould and Lawrie O’Connor built a rudimentary barrier fence around the aircraft.


Fencing at the Hay River camp Simpson Desert in July 1968.

From left: Paul McCormack, Alan Mould and Lawrie O’Connor (mostly hidden).

XNatmap image from Lawrie O’Connor.


1968 Barometric heighting in Western Australia

As mentioned, in July 1968, the Aerodist ground marking party was operating from a helicopter base camp on the Hay River in the Simpson Desert.  After travelling from the Hay River camp to Alice Springs on a supply-run, Alan left the ground marking party at Alice Springs during July 1968 to join Senior Surveyor Ted Seton’s barometric heighting field survey party in Western Australia.


As well as Alan Mould, other members of Ted Seton’s field survey party were: Terry Douglas, Murray Porteous and Ian Rushton.  Helicopter support for the field party’s heighting operations was provided by a Bell 47 piston engine aircraft on charter from Rotor Work in Sydney.  The barometric heighting operations were undertaken in the Onslow, Wittenoom, Nullagine, Marble Bar and McLarty Hills areas of Western Australia.


Helicopter on barometric heighting operations Western Australia 1968.

From left: Ted Seton, Murray Porteous and helicopter engineer.

Image kindly provided by Terry Douglas.


At the completion of the survey, the field party spent a couple of days at Nullagine, after which Ted Seton left the party at Perth to fly back to Melbourne.  The rest of the field party then travelled homeward between Perth and Kalgoorlie on 14 October 1968; the day of the Meckering earthquake.


Permanent appointment 1968

Alan Mould’s permanent appointment to the Commonwealth Public Service as a Technical Assistant, Grade 2, in the Department of National Development was promulgated in the Commonwealth of Australia Gazette on 17 October 1968 (page 5992 in Issue No 85).  The appointments of several other Nat Map Technical Assistants, Grade 2, were also promulgated in that Gazette; including Murray Porteous.


1969 Aerodist measuring New South Wales and Queensland

As well as Alan Mould, the 1969 Aerodist measuring party included: Syd Kirkby, Con Veenstra, John Manning, John Madden, George Eustice, Norm Edwards, Carl McMaster, Ed Burke, Mick Skinner, John Ely, Terry Mulholland, Bob Lucas, Norm Hawker, Paul McCormack, Ted Rollo, Lawrie O’Connor, Graeme Lawrence, Michael Lloyd, Ian Ogilvie, Ken Manypenny, Mike O’Dea, Scott Crossley, Ian Campbell, Norm Hubbard, Dennis Jones, Derrick Hatley, and Bob Goldsworthy.


In 1969 all onshore Aerodist remote unit work was vehicle-based as there was no helicopter contract.  Measuring operations commenced from Bourke and then moved to Tibooburra towards the end of May 1969.  Afterwards, Aerodist measuring operations continued from Jundah and Bedourie.  In late June 1969, the Aerodist field party was operating from Winton; Syd Kirkby was the field party leader.  Later the measuring aircraft was based at Longreach.


The Rockwell Grand Commander 680FL (VH-EXZ) that was used as the Aerodist measuring aircraft from 1966 to 1974.  XNatmap image.


Late in the onshore measuring work, the measuring aircraft operated from Camooweal to measure to new stations along the Queensland-Northern Territory border.  At Camooweal Surveyor John Manning joined the Aerodist measuring party for the first time; under field party leader Con Veenstra.  The measuring aircraft later operated from Charters Towers.


During September-October 1969, Aerodist measuring operations were carried out over the Great Barrier Reef with the measuring aircraft based at Townsville and Mackay.  Offshore support was given by Royal Australian Navy minesweepers HMAS Hawk and HMAS Gull.  However, Alan Mould was not part of these offshore operations.


1970 Map examination and map accuracy surveys North Queensland

During 1970, Alan Mould was a member of an Examination Surveys Section field party that operated mainly in the Mackay area of North Queensland undertaking map examination and map accuracy surveys.  Other field party members included: John Madden, Brian Shaddick, Eric Marques, Milton Biddle, Ron Wilde, Blyth Osborne, Reg Helmore and Jeffery Fox.  This was to be Alan Mould’s last field season with National Mapping.


The 1970 map examination survey work was a final check on the completeness of the detail on 1:100 000 scale topographic compilation sheets prior to finalisation before the fair drawing and map printing processes.  The map accuracy surveys checked the position of selected map detail for compliance with both horizontal and vertical map specifications.


During the 1970 field work, a Piaggio P.166 twin-engine (pusher-type) fixed‑wing aircraft was used for aerial map inspections and for spot or supplementary photography, mainly over off-shore cays and other features.  Jayrow Helicopters’ Bell 47G-3B2 helicopter (VH-BLM) was also used for map inspection work.  (On 19 October 1970, this helicopter was destroyed in a mid‑air collision 4 miles north-west of Moorabbin airport, the lives of 5 people were lost.)


The Johnson Ground Elevation Meter was used to check map height data.  The Elevation Meter system was mounted in a V6 petrol engined, 4-wheel-drive and 4-wheel-steer GMC van, registration ZDA 256.  The Elevation Meter had a small pendulum-mounted 5th wheel that measured height variations that were fed to an on-board computer system.  The field party also undertook Tellurometer distance measurements and angular work with Wild T2 theodolites.


Alan Mould operating a Tellurometer from the roof of a forward control Land Rover during a map accuracy survey in the Mackay area in 1970.

Image kindly provided by Brian Shaddick.


Nat Map departure 1971

In the early part of 1971, Alan Mould resigned from National Mapping as a Technical Assistant, Grade 2 in the Examination Surveys Section of the Topographic Survey Branch.  Alan had given over 5 years of service to the mapping of Australia.


With Nicholsons’ Transport, Clayton 1971 - circa 1975

Soon after leaving Nat Map in 1971, Alan became a truck driver with Alec and Bev Nicholson who operated a transport business from premises in Tully Road South Clayton and later from Keys Road Keysborough.


One part of the work with the Nicholsons was carting peas from the paddocks on farms across Victoria and southern New South Wales to the Pict processing plant at Notting Hill in Melbourne’s eastern suburbs.  Typically the paddock pick ups were timed for after daylight hours.  The trucks carried crushed ice when they drove to the crop paddocks.  The ice was spread across the peas as they were being loaded from the harvesting machines.


The Nicholsons’ vehicles included D series Fords and a Dodge 8-ton tip trucks, a D series Ford van and later a MAN semi trailer.  There was also a Bedford TK series long wheel base tray truck that Alan often drove; it was used for general freight and also for sub‑contract work with the Castlemaine-based Thompson’s Transport.  After each pea season, Nicholson’s Dodge was converted to a semi‑trailer configuration and used for carting concrete and other freight.


As well as Alan Mould, several other Nat Mappers drove for the Nicholsons including Neil Fenton, Terry Douglas and Brian Shaddick.  Alan stopped working for Nicholsons in the mid-1970s prior to joining the Victorian Civil Ambulance Service.


Marriage to Clare Marshall 1973

Alan Mould and the charming, outspoken and down to earth Clare Marshall married at Surrey Hills on 8 June 1973.  At that time Alan was 31 years of age and Clare was 29 years of age.  Around the time of her marriage, Clare worked as a telephonist and typist at a Chrysler motor car dealership; possibly Collins Chrysler.  Before her marriage Clare had been residing with her parents at 33 Kent Road Surrey Hills.


Alan and Clare were to have 2 children, sons Gavin Christopher (born 1974) and Russell Alan (born 1975).  Both children were born when Alan and Clare were residing at 1651 Ferntree Gully Road Knoxfield in Melbourne’s eastern suburbs.


Alan and Clare Mould on their wedding day.

Edited image from Evelyn Browne on Ancestry web site.


About Clare Marshall (1944-1994)

Clare Grace Marshall was born at the Bethlehem Hospital in Caulfield on 20 March 1944.  (The Hospital was founded in 1941 by the Sisters of the Little Company of Mary at 476 Kooyong Road Caulfield South.)  Clare was the first of the 5 children born to Herbert Maurice Marshall (1911-2001) and his wife Violet Mary Louise (Viby) Marshall née Cartwright (1911–1995).  Herbert and Viby Marshall married at South Yarra on 28 June 1940.  Clare’s younger siblings were Shirley, Louise, Campbell, and Colin.  Prior to her marriage, Clare’s mother Viby was residing with her own mother at the family farm Cromla in Lewis Road Wandin and was occupied as a swimming teacher.


About Clare Mould’s parents

Clare’s father Herbert Maurice Marshall was born at Christchurch, New Zealand on 5 December 1911.  His parent’s (Clare’s paternal grandparents) were Christchurch-born Herbert Harold Marshall (1878-1919) and his Brisbane‑born wife Grace Ida Marshall née Tibbits (1879-1964).  Clare’s paternal grandparents married in Victoria in 1909.  Clare’s father Herbert was the first of his parents’ 3 children.  Herbert’s younger siblings were Shirley Isabella Marshall (1913-2001) and Colin Arthur Marshall (1915-2008).  All of these Marshall children were born in New Zealand.


Clare Mould’s mother Violet Mary Louise Cartwright at circa 17 years in 1928.

Edited image from Colin Marshall on Ancestry web site.


Clare’s paternal grandfather Herbert Harold Marshall died in Auckland on 2 September 1919; he was 41 years of age.  He had worked as an insurance inspector.


By 1921, at least, Clare’s paternal grandmother Grace Ida Marshall had returned to Australia.  On a 1921 electoral roll, Grace was listed as residing at 12 Burnett Street St Kilda West and being occupied with home duties.  On an electoral roll for 1925, Grace was listed as a cake shop proprietor residing at 263 High Street Kew.  Grace was listed on various other electoral rolls in the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s residing in St Kilda, Middle Park or Hawthorn and occupied with home duties.


Grace Ida Marshall died in Melbourne on 13 January1964; she was 84 years of age.  Grace’s funeral service was held in the Herbert King Memorial Chapel at 174 Lennox Street Richmond on 15 January 1964; commencing at 10 am.  Afterwards Grace’s remains were conveyed to the Springvale crematorium.


In 1942, Clare’s parents Herbert and Violet Marshall resided at 9 Jasmine Street Caulfield and were occupied as a clerk and in home duties, respectively.  By 1949, Herbert and Violet Marshall were residing at 33 Kent Road Surrey Hills and were occupied as a manager and in home duties respectively.  In the 1950s, Herbert Marshall was associated with the London-based ship owners and forwarding agents Birt, Potter and Hughes who also operated in Australia and New Zealand.


Clare Mould’s father Herbert Maurice Marshall in 1950 and later in life.

Edited Ancestry web site images from Colin Marshall (left) and Maurice Fowler (right).


By 1977, Herbert and Violet Marshall resided at 8 Harong Crescent Knoxfield and were occupied as a promotions officer and in home duties, respectively.  Later they resided in the Glengollan Nursing Home at 97 Underwood Road Ferntree Gully.


Clare Mould’s father Herbert Maurice Marshall died at the Glengollan Nursing Home on 8 March 2001; he was 89 years of age.  Unfortunately, information on Herbert Marshall’s funeral arrangements was not discovered during research for this article.


Clare’s mother Violet Mary Louise Cartwright was born in Melbourne on 16 May 1911.  Viby was the second of the 3 children born to George Ambrose Cartwright (1879-1937) and his wife Clara Louise Ruth Cartwright née Larkin (1872-1940).  George and Clara married in Melbourne on 15 February 1909.  Viby’s siblings were brothers William George Larkin (Bill) Cartwright (1909‑1972) and John Ambrose (Jack) Cartwright (1913-1986).


Viby Marshall’s father (Clare’s grandfather) was born at Basford, Nottinghamshire and died at the Epworth Hospital Richmond on 24 January 1937.  Viby’s mother (Clare’s grandmother) was born at Whitechapel, London and died in Melbourne.  For more information on Clare’s maternal grandparents see Appendix E.


Clare Mould’s mother, Violet Mary Louise (Viby) Marshall died at the Glengollan Nursing Home on 26 August 1995; she was 84 years of age.  Viby Marshall’s funeral service was held at the Boronia Uniting Church on the corner of Boronia Road and Zeising Court Boronia on 30 August 1995; it commenced at 1:00 pm.  Afterwards Viby’s remains were privately cremated.


Ambulance officer from mid 1970s

Around the mid-1970s, Alan Mould became an Ambulance Officer with the then Victorian Civil Ambulance Service.  It is believed that Alan was stationed initially at Mount Waverley.  When Alan started with the Ambulance Service he and Clare were residing at Knoxfield.  Later Alan moved with the Ambulance Service to Swan Hill and then to Shepparton from where he eventually retired from the Service in the late 1990s or early 2000s.


St John Ambulance commenced Victoria’s first formal ambulance service in 1883.  The Victorian Civil Ambulance Service was formed in 1916, solely relying on public donations and municipal council financial support as the then State government would not subsidise the ambulance service, unlike the statewide police and fire brigades.  Later, separate Metropolitan and Rural Ambulance Services were formed.  In 2008, the separate services were combined to form Ambulance Victoria which is now an agency of the Victorian Department of Health and Human Services.


Second hand dealer from 1970s

After moving to Swan Hill with the Ambulance Service during the later part of the 1970s, Alan began trading in secondhand goods particularly at trash and treasure markets.  Alan became more active in this interest after moving to Shepparton.  Alan would attend garage sales and, later, property clearance sales to find suitable stock that he would sell from his stall at the trash and treasure markets held at the Shepparton Show Grounds on Sunday mornings.


As his trading activities increased, Alan obtained a secondhand dealers licence.  Alan once remarked that his family was able to live off his earnings from secondhand dealing and he was able to save all of his Ambulance Service salary.


Dot Jenkins was a neighbouring stall holder at the Shepparton trash and treasure markets.  Dot then lived at Wunghnu on the Goulburn Valley Highway about 25 kilometres north of Shepparton.  Dot became firm friends with Alan and Clare and later with Alan and Joan as well as an additional grandmother for Alan and Clare’s elder son Gavin.


After moving to 55 Averys Road in Eaglehawk in circa the late 1990s, Alan used a large storage shed at the rear of the property as a warehouse for his secondhand trading stock.  From here Alan would also operate his trading activities over the internet.


Lottery win and overseas trip 1992

While living in Shepparton around the time of his 50th birthday in May 1992, Alan and Clare planned an overseas trip to England and Europe.  Shortly before leaving on that trip, Alan shared a Lottery win with others and Clare and he were able to upgrade and expand their travel itinerary.  Sadly during their travels, Clare became unwell and the trip had to be cut short.  The Moulds returned to Australia were Clare underwent major surgical procedures to treat cancer.


Death of Clare Mould 1994

Sadly, Clare Mould died from cancer at her home in 10 Gilchrist Street Shepparton on 5 July 1994; she was 50 years of age.  Clare was survived by her husband Alan and their children Gavin and Russell; her parents Herbert and Viby, and her siblings Shirley, Louise, Campbell, and Colin and their partners.


Clare’s remains were cremated at the Eaglehawk Remembrance Park Crematorium on 11 July 1994.  Among the mourners at Clare’s funeral service were Nat Mappers Neil Fenton and his wife Lorraine, Murray Porteous, Terry Douglas, and Brian Shaddick and his wife Jan.  Later, Clare’s cremated remains were scattered at a park in Surrey Hills.


Marriage to Joan Naylor circa 1998

Alan Mould and Joan Alena Naylor married around 1998.  The wedding was celebrated in a garden ceremony at the residence of Alan’s sister Evelyn and her husband Terry Wignell at 57 Minchin Road Tatura, just north of the Midland Highway about 11 kilometres west of Shepparton.


Joan was born on 8 February 1945 but during research for this article her maiden name was not discovered.  Joan and her siblings had been adopted when they were young; Joan was adopted by an aunt and her siblings outside the family.  Joan and her first husband divorced.  Joan subsequently married an older man she had earlier housekept for but he later died.  Joan had children, Ros and Mal, from a previous marriage.


After their wedding, Alan and Joan resided at 55 Averys Road Eaglehawk for about 5 years.  Sadly, Joan collapsed and died suddenly in the front garden of her Eaglehawk home on 11 January 2005; she was 59 years of age.  Joan was survived by her husband Alan and her children Ros and Mal.  Joan’s funeral service was held on 14 January 2005.  Afterwards her remains were buried at the Eaglehawk Cemetery in the open lawn section.



Sadly, Alan Mould collapsed and died in the backyard of his home at 55 Averys Road Eaglehawk on 25 November 2005; he was 63 years of age.  Alan was survived by his sons Gavin and Russell, by Gavin’s partner Miranda, by Joan’s children (and partners) Ros (and Craig), Mal (and Moira); well as his and Joan’s grandchildren Mary, David, Chloe, Alicia and Austin.


Alan’s funeral was held on 2 December 2005.  Afterwards his remains were interred beside Joan’s grave in the open lawn section at the Eaglehawk Cemetery.  Several Nat Mappers were among the mourners at Alan’s funeral, including: Lawrie and Rosemary O’Connor, Brian and Jan Shaddick, Terry Douglas and Murray Porteous.



Joan and Alan Mould’s graves at Eaglehawk Cemetery.

Laurie McLean image 2012.



Appendix A


Terence Wallace Wignell (1941-2013)


Terry Wignell and his family at Ardmona in 1996.

From left: Colin, Kathy, Terry, Evelyn, and Mark.

Evelyn Browne image from Ancestry web site.


Terry Wignell was born at 319 Park Street South Melbourne on 12 May 1941; he was the only child of Walter Ralph Wignell (1910‑1968) and his wife Alma Hewlitt Emily Wignell née Egan (1913-2012) who were married in Victoria in 1936.


In 1943, Walter and Alma Wignell resided at 11 Park Road Albert Park where Walter worked as a duco sprayer and Alma was a milliner.  Walter and Alma Wignell divorced in 1951.  In 1951, Terry’s mother married Rex Arthur (Barney) Jorgensen (1922-2001) in Victoria.  (Barney had played for the Hawthorn and St Kilda clubs in the then Victorian Football League during the early 1940s; he died on 28 October 2001 at 79 years of age.  After his marriage to Alma, Barney worked as a painter for many years.)  In 1958 Terry’s father married Mabel Rene Armstrong in Victoria.


On 15 May 1962, Terry Wignell and Evelyn Mould married at the Registry Office in Queen Street Melbourne.  Evelyn is one of Alan Mould’s younger sisters.  Terry and Evelyn were to have 3 children :


·       Mark Stephen Wignell, born Melbourne 1962

·       Colin Ralph Wignell, born Kaniva 1965, died Shepparton 5 March 1999

·       Kathryn Lisa Wignell, born Shepparton 1973.


By the early 1960s, at least, Terry Wignell was working as a butcher.  On a 1963 electoral roll, Terry was listed as residing at 1 Munster Avenue Carnegie and being occupied as a butcher.  Terry’s brother-in-law Alan Mould was also listed as residing at that address in 1963 while being occupied as a clerk; presumably with the Victorian Railways.  Terry’s mother-in-law and sister‑in‑law Winifred Alice Mould and Marion Eileen Mould were also listed as residing at 1 Munster Avenue in 1963.


On a 1967 electoral roll, Terry and Evelyn Wignell were listed as residing at 18 Adam Street Quarry Hill (Bendigo) and being engaged as a field assistant and in home duties, respectively.  By 1968, they were living at 19 Willian Street Eaglehawk; with same occupations as in 1967.


National Mapping 1967-1969

Terry Wignell worked with Nat Map’s Melbourne-based Geodetic Survey Branch as a Field Assistant from 1967 to 1969.  All of Terry’s Nat Map field work was in support of defining Nat Map’s 2 high precision baselines for the world‑wide PAGEOS (passive geodetic earth orbiting satellite) program that provided a tracking target for geodetic triangulation purposes.  PAGEOS was launched in June 1966 by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).  The 30.48 metre inflatable sphere satellite had no instruments but was simply photographed against the background of stars at precisely known locations across the world for triangulation purposes.


The 2 Australian baselines were observed over new or existing geodetic survey networks between 1967 and 1970.  An East-West Baseline ran from a ballistic camera site at Caversham (about 14 kilometres north-east of Perth) to a ballistic camera site at Culgoora about 25 kilometres north-west of Narrabri in north‑western New South Wales.  The North-South Baseline ran from Culgoora to a ballistic camera site on Thursday Island in Torres Strait.  The 3 ballistic cameras used at the Baseline sites were Swiss-made Wild Heerbrugg BC-4 instruments.  (Initially it was intended to locate the western ballistic camera at Muchea but later it was decided to site the camera at Caversham, about 30 kilometres to the south.)


Nat Map 1967 field season

In 1967, Terry Wignell was a member of a small survey field party led by Surveyor Andrew Porteous (one of Murray’s older brothers) with Adrian Wright (1944-2008), Dave Yates, John Martin and a J Houser.  The field party used model MRA-4 Tellurometer microwave electronic distance measuring instruments to measure part of the East-West Baseline between Muchea (north of Perth) to near Mount Finke about 60 kilometres south-west of the then settlement of Tarcoola on the Trans-Australia (Indian Pacific) railway line and now at the junction of the Port Augusta to Darwin (Ghan) railway line.  Mount Finke is about 20 kilometres south of the Trans-Australia railway line.


In early July 1967, the Nat Map field party commenced Tellurometer measuring at Cook on the Trans Australia railway line in South Australia, about 135 kilometres east of the Western Australia border.  From Cook the survey party first measured westwards to Muchea (Perth) which was reached in early October 1967.  The survey party then returned to Cook and measured eastwards along the Trans Australia railway line for about 370 kilometres to a point north of Mount Finke.  The field party completed that work by early November 1967 and then returned to Melbourne.


On the Nullarbor in 1967 from left: Dave Yates, Terry Wignell, and John Martin with an AB120 International utility.  XNatmap image from Adrian Wright.


An observing tower near the Trans Australia train line in 1967, from left: John Martin, Terry Wignell and Dave Yates.  An XNatmap image from Adrian Wright.


Mount Finke South Australia on 15 July 2012.

Image kindly provided by Lawrie O’Connor.


Nat Map 1968 field season

In 1968, Terry Wignall worked on the East-West and the North-South Baselines in a larger field party that was led alternately by Orest Jacovlavich (Bob) Bobroff (1922-2013) and Francis James (Frank) McCoy.  The field party left Melbourne in mid-May and travelled to Carrieton in the Flinders Ranges east of Port Augusta where the MRA-4 Tellurometers were tested.  The field party then moved to Ooldea on the Trans-Australia train line in the Great Victoria Desert about 264 kilometres west of Tarcoola.


Field work began near Ooldea in late June and at times during that year included angular and astronomical observations using Wild T3 theodolites.  From the Ooldea area the high precision measuring progressed generally north‑eastwards: over Lake Torrens and through the Flinders Ranges to Mount Bendemeer in New South Wales about 35 kilometres north-east of Tamworth; which was reached in early August 1968.


The survey party then spent 2 weeks testing the MRA-4 Tellurometers over the Somerton baseline in the Peel River Valley near Manilla about 30 kilometres or so to the north-west of Tamworth.  The PAGEOS Baseline survey then continued northwards from Mount Kaputar about 37 kilometres east of Narrabri.  In this section as well as Tellurometer measurements, horizontal and vertical angles and some simultaneous reciprocal azimuths were observed.  The 1968 survey work concluded at Maurice Hill near the Central Queensland coast about 10 kilometres south of Gladstone in late October; the field party then returned to Melbourne.


Nat Map 1969 field season

From late February to the end of March 1969, Terry Wignell was a member of a small field survey party led by Surveyor Peter O’Donnell that carried out clearing work in north-western New South Wales.  This work was to shift a section at the eastern end of the proposed high precision East-West PAGEOS Baseline southward by about 110 kilometres to avoid flat land where observing towers would otherwise need to be erected to obtain line of sight.  The new cleared section extended for some 380 kilometres over 14 second order New South Wales Lands Department triangulation or traverse stations.  These 14 stations ran from Tooram survey station about 52 kilometres north-east of Cobar to Mount Kaputar east of Narrabri.


Between May and June 1969, Terry Wignell was a member of a survey party led by Surveyor Bruce Willington that carried out a high precision traverse over the Tooram to Mount Kaputar section.  The traverse involved MRA-4 Tellurometer distance measurements, horizontal and vertical angles and simultaneous reciprocal azimuths.  The survey party then travelled by road to Cape York in Far North Queensland to observe the Thursday Island to Cairns section of the North‑South PAGEOS Baseline.


Pilot Phil Cooke operating the Bell helicopter during the 1969 Cape York survey.

XNatmap image courtesy Ted Graham.


The Thursday Island to Cairns section of the survey was directed by Senior Surveyor Bob Bobroff with Surveyor Peter Langhorne as field party leader.  This survey was supported by a Bell 47G-3B-2 piston engine helicopter (VH‑BLM) chartered from the Moorabbin-based Jayrow Helicopters.  The helicopter was used to position the observing parties on to the survey stations.  The helicopter contract started at Cape York in mid-July and concluded near Cairns in mid‑September 1969.  During this survey the helicopter pilots included Phil Cooke (1927-2016) and Cliff Dohle DSM (1935-2009).  Engineers included: Eckhart Schneider.  (Sadly, the aircraft was destroyed in a mid-air collision over Moorabbin on 19 October 1970.)


At the conclusion of the 1969 survey, most of the field party travelled back to Melbourne.


Meat Inspector

After leaving Nat Map at the end of the 1969 field season, Terry Wignell became a meat inspector for many years with the Commonwealth Government’s Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service which inspected and certified all meat exports.  On a 1972 electoral roll, Terry and Evelyn Wignell were listed as residing at 13 Weddell Street Shepparton and being occupied as a meat inspector and in home duties; respectively.  On electoral rolls for 1977 and 1980, Terry and Evelyn were listed as residing at Boundary Street Shepparton with same occupations as in 1972.


By the 1990s, Terry and Evelyn Wignell were living at 57 Minchin Road Tatura, about 3 kilometres south-west of the Ardmona post office.  In 2005, the Wignells moved to Stanhope Road Rushworth.  While they were living at Rushworth, Terry and Evelyn Wignell’s marriage broke down and they divorced in 2009.



Sadly, Terry Wignell died at Rushworth on 9 July 2013; he was 72 years of age.  Terry was survived by his former wife Evelyn and by their children Mark and Kathy; their second son Colin had died in 1999.  Terry’s funeral service was held at the Valley Funerals Chapel in Francis Street Tatura on 18 July 2013; it commenced at 11:00 am.  Afterwards Terry’s remains were interred in the Anglican Section of the Rushworth Cemetery (Plot 9, Grave 9).



Appendix B


About Private Joe Ritchie (1927-1951)


Alan Mould’s maternal uncle Joseph (Joe) Ritchie died of illness while serving with the Australian Army during the Korean War.  Joe was the eighth of the 10 children born to Alan’s grandparents James Currie (Jim) Ritchie (1869‑1941) and his wife Lucy Irene Ritchie née McKay (1894-1963).  Joe was born on 2 April 1927.  Like all of his siblings, Joe Ritchie was born in Victoria’s Goulburn Valley at Mooroopna.


On 19 April 1945, some 2 weeks after his 18th birthday, Joe Ritchie enlisted in the Second Australian Imperial Force.  This was about 4 months or so before Japan’s World War II unconditional surrender on 2 September 1945.  Joe’s Second AIF Service Number was VX97087.  (The Second AIF was raised to serve during World War II and ceased to exist on 30 June 1947.  All Second AIF personnel then still on full-time duty were transferred to the Interim Army on 1 July 1947 and this force became the foundation of the Australian Regular Army in 1948.)


Joe Ritchie’s later Service Number was 31925.  Joe Ritchie had enlisted at Melbourne’s Royal Park Army Depot.  His place of residence was then recorded as South Yarra and he nominated his mother Lucy Ritchie as his next of kin


Joe Ritchie was posted as a Private to the 67th Australian Infantry Battalion which was formed as part of the Australian 34th Brigade at Morotai (one of Indonesia's northern most islands in the Moluccas Group) in October 1945.  (In September 1947, the 67th Battalion was re-designated as the 3rd Battalion.


In February 1946, with the rest of the 67th Battalion Private Ritchie arrived in Japan as part of the Australian 34th Brigade in the British Commonwealth Occupation Force.


Joe’s entry on the Department of Veterans’ Affairs World War II nominal roll indicates that he was discharged from the 67th Battalion on 16 June 1949.  However, it is not clear if Private Ritchie did in fact leave the Army.


Joe Ritchie’s entry on the Department of Veterans’ Affairs Korean War nominal roll indicates that as Private 31925 in the Royal Australian Infantry Corps he served in the Korean War for 118 days.  The nominal roll indicates Private Ritchie arrived in Korea with the 3rd Battalion on 28 September 1950 and died on 23 January 1951; he was 23 years of age.


Owing to time and distance constraints, it would have taken some organisation for Joe to leave the Army on 16 June 1949, then re-enlist and land in Korea with the 3rd Battalion on 28 September 1950.


Private Ritchie did not die from combat-related causes but from illness due to diabetes which obviously had not been sufficiently treated.  Nevertheless, Joe Ritchie was a casualty of the Korean War.


Private Ritchie and the rest of the 3rd Battalion had landed at Pusun (now Busan) on the south-east coast of the Korean peninsula.  Private Ritchie died at Taegu, now Daegu, a major city about 90 kilometres north-west of Pusan (Busan) and about 250 kilometres south-east of the South Korean capital Seoul.  Private Ritchie’s remains were interred in what is now known as the United Nations Memorial Cemetery located at Tanggok in the Nam District of the City of Busan; Plot Location: 16-1-5, Grave No 5.


Private Joseph Ritchie’s grave in the United Nations Memorial Cemetery at Busan in South Korea.

Edited images from findagrave web site by Bob Boston (left) and John Winterbotham (right).


Provided below is some further information on the 67th Australian Infantry Battalion, the 3rd Battalion of The Royal Australian Regiment, the British Commonwealth Occupation Force in Japan, and some of the 3rd Battalion’s service during the Korean War.  Hopefully, this information will provide sufficient context for a better understanding of Joe Ritchie’s Army service.


About 3 Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment

3RAR was formed on 20 October 1945 as the 67th Australian Infantry Battalion in the Australian 34th Brigade at Morotai.  The new Battalion was made up of volunteers from the 3rd, 6th, 7th and 11th Australian Divisions.  The Battalion was to be part of the British Commonwealth Occupation Force that served in Japan from February 1946 to April 1952.


About the British Commonwealth Occupation Force

Between 1945 and 1952, the British Commonwealth Occupation Force in Japan comprised a total of some 45 000 service personnel drawn from Britain, India, New Zealand, and Australia.  About 16 000 Australians served in the BCOF including an infantry contingent, base units, an Air Force wing, and an Australian General Hospital.  The Royal Australian Navy also had a presence in the region.  For some two-thirds of the period of occupation, the Commonwealth was represented solely by Australians and throughout its existence the BCOF was always commanded by an Australian senior officer.


The BCOF area of responsibility was the western prefectures of Shimani, Yamaguchi, Tottori, Okayama, Hiroshima, and Shikoku Island.  The BCOF Headquarters were at Kure, the Army was encamped at Hiro, the RAAF was at Iwakuni and the naval shore establishment was at the former Japanese naval base at Kure.  At the peak of its involvement the Australian component of the BCOF was responsible for over 20 million Japanese citizens and some 57 000 square kilometres of the country.


The main role of the BCOF was to enforce the terms of the unconditional surrender that had ended the war on 2 September 1945.  The BCOF was required to maintain military control and to supervise the demilitarisation and disposal of the remnants of Japan's war-making capacity.  To this end, Australian Army and RAAF personnel were involved in locating and securing military stores and installations.


The Intelligence Sections of the Australian battalions were given targets to investigate by BCOF Headquarters for dumps of Japanese military equipment.  Warlike materials were destroyed and other equipment was either retained by BCOF or returned to the Japanese.  The destruction or conversion to civilian use of military equipment was carried out by Japanese civilians under Australian supervision.  Regular patrols and road reconnaissances were carried out in the Australian area of responsibility as part of general surveillance duties.


3RAR with the British Commonwealth Occupation Force, Japan

The 67th Battalion arrived in Japan as part of the Australian 34th Brigade in February 1946.  As with the rest of the occupation force, the Battalion did not encounter any significant resistance or civil unrest.  The main body of the 67th Battalion arrived at Kure, Japan on 21 February 1946 and throughout its time in Japan, the Battalion served at Kahachi, Okayama, Haramuri, Kure, Hiro and Tokyo.


The Battalion's tasks included the screening of returning Japanese soldiers, the destruction of arms caches, the supervision of general elections, guard duties on various important buildings and installations, internal security, as well as normal military operations.


In September 1947, it was decided that Australian infantry battalions would adopt the British regimental system and the 67th Battalion was re-designated the 3rd Battalion, The Australian Regiment.  On 10 March 1949, His Majesty King George VI approved the title Royal.  The Australian force in Japan was gradually downsized, with 3RAR being the only Australian battalion left there at the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950.


3RAR in the Korean War 1950-1954

On 25 June 1950, the North Korean Army invaded South Korea seeking to unify Korea under communist rule.  On the outbreak of the Korean War, 3RAR was preparing to return to Australia from its service in Japan.  Owing to the rapidly deteriorating situation in Korea, 3RAR, in proximity to that theatre, was chosen to assist the United Nations effort there.  After a short period of intensive training and reorganization, the Battalion sailed in the United States Navy Ship Aiken Victory and landed at Pusan (now Busan) on 28 September 1950.  (During the Korean War, Australian infantry battalions served as part of British and later Commonwealth brigades to support the United Nations operations in Korea.).  On 1 October 1950, the 3rd Battalion joined two British battalions to form the 27th British Commonwealth Brigade at Taegu (now also known as Daegu).


Troops from 3 Battalion line the rails of the Aitken Victory, to watch the Korean Navy Band march past to welcome their arrival at Pusan on 28 September 1950.

Claude Rudolph Holzheimer image from the Australian War Memorial; Accession Number 147223.


On 5 October 1950, the Battalion deployed to take part in the 8th Army offensive to break out of the Pusan pocket.  Later in October 1950, the Battalion distinguished itself at Chongju during the United Nations northward advance to the Yalu River; preceded by actions at the Apple Orchard and Broken Bridge that were well executed, the latter against a large enemy force equipped with tanks.


By late October 1950, the Battalion had reached the Pakchon-Chongju area, which also represented the northernmost extent of 3RAR’s advance in the war.  Commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Hercules Charlie Green DSO it attacked and captured a large North Korean defensive line in a combined arms operation with tanks and artillery.  The advance had covered some 400 miles and accounted for some 450 enemy killed, 1 900 prisoners taken and 15 armoured vehicles destroyed.  3RAR's casualties were 13 killed and 34 wounded.  However, on 1 November 1950, Colonel Green died of wounds from artillery fire exploding near his tent while the Battalion was resting in a forward area.


In November 1950, Chinese Communist Forces entered the war.  This resulted in a reversal of the successes enjoyed over the last months.  During the harsh winter of November and December 1950 the Allies were forced to withdraw south of the 38th Parallel.


As the United Nations forces were pushed south by the Chinese, 3RAR was outstanding at the Battle of Kapyong on 22-25 April 1951.  Commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Bruce Ferguson, 3RAR and adjacent units stemmed the Chinese advance which threatened to break through into the Central Front of the United Nations forces.  In a difficult defensive action, supported by the 16th New Zealand Field Regiment, 3RAR, together with the 2nd Battalion Princes Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry and A Company, US 72nd Heavy Tank Battalion succeeded in defeating an entire Chinese Division.  These units were awarded United States Presidential unit citations for their efforts.


A detailed account of the following years of the war in Korea is not given here as it was after the death of Joe Ritchie.


Hostilities in Korea formally ceased on 27 July 1953, however, 3RAR remained there for a further 14 months.  On 12 October 1954, after serving overseas continuously since its formation in October 1945, 3RAR embarked in MV New Australia for return to Australia.  The Battalion arrived in Brisbane on 20 October 1954 and paraded through that city, followed by similar parades through Sydney and Melbourne.  The Battalion was then concentrated at Ingleburn from February 1955.


During the Korean War, 3RAR lost 198 men killed in action, 892 men wounded in action and 38 missing in action.  (The number of 3RAR men who died from non-combat causes such as illness or accident was not discovered.)  Owing to its service in Korea, the Battalion became known as Old Faithful.



Appendix C


About David Mould (1897–1917)


David Mould.

Extract from newspaper cutting on findagrave web site.


Alan’s paternal uncle David Mould was his father’s older and only brother.  David was born during January 1897 at Warrington, Lancashire.  David was baptised at St Anne’s Anglican Parish Church, Warrington on 25 February 1897.  On the 1911 England Census, David Mould was listed as living with his parents and younger siblings at Warrington.  On that record, the then 14-year old David was listed as being employed as a wire winder at a wire ropery.


During World War I, David Mould was called-up for service in the British Army on 7 October 1916; he was 19 years of age.  Around that time the Mould family was living at 37 Laira Street Warrington.  David was posted as a Gunner, Regimental Number 123637, to the 154th Siege Battery, Royal Garrison Artillery.  The 154th Siege Battery was first deployed overseas to France on 30 August 1916 as part of the British Expeditionary Force.  From 24 March 1917 to 4 September 1917, the 154th Siege Battery was part of the 12th Heavy Artillery Group.


The Battery was then equipped with four 9.2 inch howitzers.  From 12 July 1917 until early in the New Year of 1918, the 154th Siege Battery was positioned at Saint-Éloi in Belgium (officially Sint-Elooi and about a kilometre south-east of Voormezele).


Sint-Elooi is a small village, about 5 kilometres south of Ypres in the Flemish province of West Flanders in Belgium.  Although Sint-Elooi is the Dutch and only official name, the village's French name, Saint-Éloi, is most commonly used in English due to its role in World War I.  Saint-Éloi is about 8 kilometres north of the border with France.


Map showing Saint-Éloi south of Ypres and the front line in the Ypres Salient of June 1916.  Map adapted by Francis Whiting Halsey, The Literary Digest of the First World War, Funk & Wagnalls, Volume 3, 1919 from Wikipedia web site.



The Third Battle of Ypres, from 31 July to 10 November 1917, is also known as the Battle of Passchendaele.  During that battle Australian, New Zealand, British, Canadian, and French forces recaptured the Passchendaele Ridge east of Ypres at a terrible cost in lives.


Light railway and artillery shell dump at Saint-Éloi on 11 August 1917 during the Battle of Passchendaele with enemy shell burst in background.

An edited Imperial War Museums image Q 5879 by Lieutenant John Warwick Brooke (1886–1929), official photographer on the Western Front.


Tragically, David Mould was one of the lives lost during the Battle of Passchendaele.  The 20‑year old David was killed in action on the Western Front on 16 August 1917.  He had been at the Front for only 6 weeks.  David’s remains were buried at Voormezeele Cemetery, Enclosures Nos 1 and 2; see image below.  These Enclosures are located 4 kilometres south-west of Ypres town centre, on the Voormezeele Dorp, a street in the village of Voormezeele.


Larger memorial image loading...

Gunner David Mould’s grave at Voormezeele Cemetery, Belgium.

Image from https://www


The upper scroll on the badge of the Royal Artillery on David Mould’s headstone (immediately below the Crown) bears the motto Ubique.  This translates as Everywhere and reflects the fact that wherever the Army has served, gunners have been part of the force.  The lower scroll reads Quo Fas et Gloria Ducunt (Wherever Right and Glory Lead).



Appendix D


More on the Royal Scots Fusiliers in World War I


Royal Scots Fusiliers World War I cap badge.

Image from British Military Badges web site.


Royal Scots Fusiliers-some background

The Regiment was formed in Scotland in September 1678 by Stuart loyalist Charles Erskine, 5th Earl of Mar, to suppress rebelling Covenanters (who supported a Presbyterian Church of Scotland).  It was then known as the Earl of Mar's Regiment of Foot.  In 1689, the Regiment was converted to Fusiliers after being armed with Fusil muskets; then the most technically advanced weaponry available.  The Regiment had many name changes over the centuries.  It was named the Royal Scots Fusiliers from 1890 to 1959.  It was then successively amalgamated with other famous Scottish regiments to form today’s Royal Regiment of Scotland.


During World War I, the Royal Scots Fusiliers raised 19 battalions and was awarded 58 battle honours and four Victoria Crosses.  Sadly, the Regiment lost some 5 600 men killed during that war.


6th (Service) Battalion Royal Scots Fusiliers in World War I

Royal Scots Fusiliers service battalions provided combat service support to a brigade group and its elements.  Service battalions were able to fight in a defensive role as well as provide the vital logistical support to sustain the operations of the other units within the brigade group.  However, a purely defensive roll may have been a little hard to maintain in the heat of battle!


In August 1914, the 6th (Service) Battalion of the Royal Scots Fusiliers was formed at Ayr on the Firth of the Clyde on Scotland’s west coast about 50 kilometres or so south-west of Glasgow.  The Battalion was part of the British First New Army.  It then moved to Bordon in southern England (about 35 kilometres north of Portsmouth) as part of the 27th Brigade in the 9th Division.



In February 1915, the 6th (Service) Battalion moved to Bramshott, about 5 kilometres south-east of Bordon.  On 11 May 1915, the Battalion was mobilised for war and landed at Boulogne on the English Channel coast in northern France.  From Boulogne, the Battalion was engaged in action on the Western Front.  This action included: the Battle of Loos, near Lille about 100 kilometres west of Boulogne.  That battle was fought from 25 September to 8 October 1915.  During the Battle of Loos, the Battalion suffered very heavy casualties.



In early January 1916, (future World War II British Prime-Minister) Lieutenant‑Colonel Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill (1874-1965) became the commanding officer of the 6th (Service) Battalion, Royal Scots Fusiliers.  Churchill spent around 5 months on the Western Front with the Battalion; he was then 41 years of age.


Lieutenant-Colonel Winston Churchill (front row centre) and other 6th (Service) Battalion officers 1916.  Image from Wikipedia website.


In November 1915, Churchill resigned from the British Government (but not from Parliament) following his demotion from First Lord of the Admiralty in the wake of the Gallipoli Campaign which he had overseen.  Churchill remained with the 6th (Service) Battalion until early May 1916.  His position as commanding officer was made redundant when the 6th (Service) Battalion was amalgamated with the 7th (Service) Battalion.  Some reports suggested that Churchill was supportive of this re-organisation as it provided an honourable means for him to leave the Army and return to Parliament; which he did initially as an Independent.


On 7 May 1916, owing to the heavy casualties it had suffered, the 6th (Service) Battalion was transferred to the 45th Brigade, in the 15th (Scottish) Division and amalgamated with the 7th (Service) Battalion to become the 6/7th Battalion.


On 11-12 May 1916 the 6/7th (Service) Battalion was part of the unsuccessful defence of the Kink position near Loos.  From 1 to 13 July 1916, the 6/7th (Service) Battalion fought in the Battle of Albert (the first battle in the Somme offensive).  Albert is about 75 kilometres south of Lille.  During 14-17 July 1916, the Battalion fought in the Battle of Bazentin Ridge during the second phase of the Somme offensive.


The 6/7th (Service) Battalion continued fighting on the Somme in the Battle of Delville Wood, near the village of Longueval that lies to the east of Albert, this battle took place between 15 July and 3 September 1916.  The Battalion was also reported to have been at the Battle of Pozieres that took place on the Somme during 23 July 1916-3 September 1916 and at the Battle of Flers‑Courcelette on the Somme during 15–22 September 1916.  Next, the Battalion was reported to have fought in the Battle of Le Transloy between 1 and 18 October 1916; it was the last of the big battles during the Somme offensive.



During 1917, the 6/7th (Service) Battalion of the Royal Scots Fusiliers took part in the following major actions :


·       First Battle of the Scarpe in the Scarpe River valley of northern France which was fought during 9–14 April 1917 and was the opening of the larger Battle of Arras.

·       Second Battle of the Scarpe which was fought during 23-24 April 1917 to capture part of the German Hindenburg Line.

·       Battle of Pilckem Ridge which was fought from 31 July to 2 August 1917 and was the opening attack of the Third Battle of Ypres in southern Belgium.

·       Battle of Langemarck (16–18 August 1917) which was the second general attack of the Third Battle of Ypres (also called the Battle of Passchendaele).


Assuming Samuel Mould was present with the 6/7th Battalion the during the Battle of Langemarck on 16 August 1917, he was most likely in the action on the same day his older brother David lost his life.  However, as indicated on the map below, the Battle of Langemark took place to the north of Ypres.  It seems that David Mould may have been killed at or near the village of Saint-Éloi that lies to the south of Ypres.


Map of the Ypres, Langemark and Passchendaele area circa 1917.

Image from Wikipedia web site.



On 21 February 1918, the 6/7th (Service) Battalion of the Royal Scots Fusiliers was transferred to the 59th Division as a Pioneer Battalion.  These battalions were essentially work horses raised to dig fortifications, trenches, siege works and other earthworks.  The Pioneer Battalions’ skilled labour helped to relieve infantry units from such non-combat duties.  Notwithstanding its Pioneer role, the 6/7th (Service) Battalion took part in the following major actions in the early part of 1918 :


·       Battle of Saint Quentin which was fought during 21–23 March 1918 in response to the German Spring Offensive.  Saint Quentin is on the north side of the Somme River about 25 kilometres south-east of the town of Péronne.  (This action should not be confused with the Australian-led Battle of Mont St Quentin that took place in August-September 1918 just north of Péronne.)

·       First Battle of Bapaume which was fought on 24–25 March 1918; also in response to the German Spring Offensive.  Bapaume lies about 20 kilometres north of Péronne.  (The Second Battle of Bapaume took place in August-September 1918, after the 6/7th Battalion had returned to England.)

·       Battle of Bailleul which was fought on 13-15 April 1918 and the First Battle of Kemmel Ridge which was fought on 17-19 April 1918.  Both of these actions were part of the wider the Battles of the Lys in response to the German offensive Operation Georgette aimed at cutting-off the British Second Army at Ypres.


These actions in the early part of 1918 apparently took a heavy toll on the 6/7th (Service) Battalion; as on 10 May 1918 the Battalion was reduced to a training group.


6/7th (Service) Battalion returned to England June 1918

On 18 June 1918, the 6/7th (Service) Battalion of the Royal Scots Fusiliers was transferred to the 47th Brigade of the 16th Division and returned to England.  On 20 June 1918, the Battalion moved to Deal on the coast in Kent about 110 kilometres south-east of London.


On 2 July 1918, the 6/7th (Service) Battalion was absorbed by the 18th Scottish Rifles and thus ceased as a separate battalion.



Appendix E


About Clare Mould’s maternal grandparents


George Ambrose Cartwright (1879–1937)

Clare Mould’s maternal grandfather George Ambrose Cartwright was born at Basford, Nottinghamshire on 12 September 1879 and died at the Epworth Hospital, Richmond on 24 January 1937 at 57 years of age.  Basford is a northern suburb of Nottingham and about 170 kilometres north of London.


George Ambrose Cartwright was the fourth of the 8 children born to William Thomas Cartwright (1851–1921) and his wife Mary Isabel Cartwright née Brameld (1846–1903).  William and Mary Cartwright married at Wolverhampton, Staffordshire on 15 October 1874.  William was born at Loughborough, Leicestershire and died at Nottingham; he was about 70 years of age.  Mary was born at St James Westminster and died at Nottingham; she was 56 years of age.


Clare Mould’s maternal great grandfather William Cartwright was a solicitor who practised in Nottingham.  The Cartwrights were a legal family that had included solicitors since feudal times.  The Cartwright firm had been private solicitors to British Monarchs George IV (1762-1830, reigned 1820-1830) and his younger brother William IV (1765-1837, reigned 1830-1837).  At least one of William Cartwright’s brothers and one of his sons were solicitors.


On a 1901 England Census record, the Cartwright family resided at 7 Newcastle Drive Nottingham.  Family members residing at that address included Thomas William Cartwright, a 22-year old solicitor and George Ambrose Cartwright, a 21-year old mechanical engineer.  Also residing in the Cartwright household were 4 domestic servants.


George Cartwright’s education and professional training

Clare Mould’s maternal grandfather George Ambrose Cartwright attended the Rugby School (at Rugby in Warwickshire about 70 kilometres south of Nottingham).  Rugby was founded in 1567 as a free grammar school for local boys and is one of the oldest independent schools in Britain; it was the birthplace of Rugby football.  Between 1874 and 1895 that covers the period when George Cartwright would most likely have attended, the headmasters at Rugby were the Anglican priest Dr Thomas William Jex-Blake (1832-1915; Headmaster 1874-1887), and the Anglican Deacon (and later Bishop) Dr John Percival, (1834-1918; Headmaster 1887 to 1895).


After attending the Rugby school, George Cartwright took a higher mathematical course and served articles with the ammunition and engineering firm Greenwood and Batley at Leeds.  As well as undertaking general engineering and manufacturing, Greenwood and Batley produced munitions; including for the British Forces during the Crimean War (1853-1856) and ammunition for Confederate Forces during the American Civil War (1861‑1865).


George Cartwright later went on to Leeds University and then to the Royal Arsenal at Woolwich, on the south Bank of the River Thames in south-east London.  The Arsenal operated from the late 1600s to the 1960s and at its peak employed around 80 000 people.  At 20 years of age (circa 1899), George Cartwright emerged from the Royal Arsenal as a fully qualified munitions engineer.  George had also served as a Lieutenant in a Field Artillery unit with the Royal Artillery, presumably in a Militia unit.


Royal Arsenal, Woolwich circa 1901.

Edited National Maritime Museum image from Wikipedia web site.


Around 1900, at 21 years of age George Cartwright joined the munitions manufacturer the Colonial Ammunition Company Limited (Australia) and became the manager at age 22 years.  George had come to Victoria circa 1901 as understudy to British-born New Zealand industrialist and former British Army officer John Whitney (1836–1932).


Colonial Ammunition Company, New Zealand

In 1888, John Whitney established the Colonial Ammunition Company (CAC) in New Zealand with New Zealand Government support and as a joint venture with backing from several partners in England including the Leeds-based munitions and engineering firm Greenwood and Batley.  At that time, the British Government had ceased supply of ammunition to New Zealand due to the 1885 Panjdeh incident, an armed engagement between the Emirate of Afghanistan and the Russian Empire.


Colonial Ammunition Company Limited (Australia)

The Colonial Ammunition Company Limited (Australia) was founded by John Whitney who had founded the CAC in New Zealand.  The Australian company had the same English joint venture partners as the New Zealand company but was a separate corporate entity.  An agreement with the Victorian Government to build a munitions factory at Maribyrnong was signed in 1889.  The chairman of CAC who executed that agreement on behalf of the Company was Nottingham solicitor William Thomas Cartwright (Clare Mould’s great grandfather).


In 1889, the Colonial Ammunition Company erected its ammunition plant next to Jack's Magazine (originally known as the Saltwater River Gunpowder Magazine).  The Magazine opened in 1878 to store imported gunpowder under bond and was located on the now Maribyrnong River at Maribyrnong, off what is now Cordite Avenue which is an extension of Raleigh Road.  The now heritage listed Magazine was decommissioned in the 1990s.


A recent view of Jack’s Magazine Maribyrnong.

Edited image from ABC News web site 2018.


During his time as manager of the Colonial Ammunition Company plant at Maribyrnong, George Cartwright implemented a number of then very modern staffing initiatives, including :


·       paying employees for all holidays, with 10 days extra leave on full pay for all workers and the cook with a cheque for pay in advance and a further 2 weeks for females in the cordite department

·       paying college fees for young employees

·       a system where the company took up War Loan Bonds for its workers on an extended repayment plan.


During World War I, all of the 0.303-inch (7.7 mm) calibre ammunition used by the Australian Imperial Force at Gallipoli was said to be made at the Colonial Ammunition Company’s Maribyrnong plant.  During World War I, at least, Arthur James Cartwright (1881-1957) one of George’s younger brothers was assistant manager at the Maribyrnong plant.


The Australian government leased the Maribyrnong facility from the Colonial Ammunition Company in January 1921 and bought the facility outright in 1927 and renamed it the Small Arms Ammunition Factory No 1.


Marriage to Miss Clara Clifton 1909

In Melbourne on 15 February 1909, George Ambrose Cartwright married Clara Louise Ruth Larkin.  George was 29 years of age and Clara was 36 years of age.  Clara Larkin was a successful and well known singer and comic actor who used the stage name Clara Clifton.  As mentioned earlier, George and Clara Cartwright were to have 3 children: William George Larkin (Bill) Cartwright (1909‑1972), Violet Mary Louise (Viby) Cartwright (1911-1995) and John Ambrose (Jack) Cartwright (1913-1986).  The 3 Cartwright children were born in Melbourne.

Her marriage to Clare Mould’s grandfather apparently signalled the end of Clara Clifton’s stage career.  The Melbourne Punch magazine was published from 1855 to 1925.  In an article on George Cartwright in its 3 August 1916 issue, the magazine made the following comment on the end of Clara Clifton’s stage career :


…Certainly, when she came out from England with the Royal Comic Opera Company some years ago as Clara Clifton, Melbourne could have dealt it out to Cartwright for grabbing her from the footlights before its very eyes.  It had cherished a warm affection for Miss Clifton and it has not yet forgiven the dapper manager for getting in ahead of it



Clare Mould’s grandmother Clara Cartwright.

Edited image from Colin Marshall on Ancestry web site.


Clara Louise Ruth Larkin (1872–1940)

Clare Mould’s maternal grandmother Clara Louise Ruth Larkin was born on 8 August 1872 at Whitechapel which is a suburb immediately to the east of the City of London.  Clara was the fourth of the 4 children born to John James Larkin (circa 1849-1880) and his wife Harriet Lambeth Larkin née Soanes (1846–1910).  Clara’s older siblings were: Eda Nappy Larkin (1866–1875), Eleanor Phillis Larkin (1868–1929) and John James Larkin (born 1870).  Eda was born at Lambeth and the other 3 Larkin children were born at Whitechapel.  John Larkin and Harriet Soanes married on 12 February 1866 at the Holy Trinity Church of England in Carlisle Street Lambeth on the south side of the River Thames in Greater London.


John James Larkin was born at Westminster (London) in about 1840.  He died on 29 October 1880 at St Pancras (London).  John Larkin was buried at the City of London and Tower Hamlets Cemetery on 5 November 1880 and was listed as being 40 years of age.  Harriet Lambeth Soanes was born in October 1846 at Woodbridge, Suffolk.  She died on 27 February 1910 at Hackney in London; at 63 years of age.


John and Harriet Larkin’s first child, Eda Nappy Larkin, was baptised as Ada Nappy Larkin on 5 August 1866 at the Lambeth Holy Trinity Church.  Her parents were then residing at 13 Park Place in Carlisle Street Lambeth and her father listed his occupation as professional.


John and Harriet Larkin worked as comedians and used the stage name Clifton.  On an 1871 England Census record John and Harriet Clifton were listed as comedians residing at 3 Hampshire Court Whitechapel with their daughters Eda and Eleanor.  On an England Census record for 1881, the year after John Larkin’s death, Harriet Larkin (comedian) was listed as residing with her then 5 children at 67 Leopold Buildings Hackney.  As well as her 4 Larkin children, Harriet had a 1-year old son George Cleghorne.  A domestic servant was also residing at that address.


George Yates was the stage name of comedian George William Cleghorne who was born in 1831 at Shoreditch (London) and died at Albion Terrace in Dalston on 30 July 1907 at about 76 years of age.


Harriet Larkin’s youngest child, George Cleghorne, was baptised at the St John Church of England, Hackney on 3 October 1879.  His parents, George and Harriet were listed on the baptism register as residing at 68 Leopold Buildings; the father’s trade or profession was listed as comedian.  A record of the marriage of Harriet Larkin and George Cleghorne was not discovered during research for this article.


On an 1891 England Census record, the then 44 years old Harriet Yates was listed as residing with her 60 years old husband George Yates at 6 Albion Terrace Dalston (about 4 kilometres north of the Tower of London.)  Both George and Harriet were listed as comedian actors.  Harriet’s 5 children, including (erroneously) the 11 years old George were also listed as residing at that address as George Yates’ step-children.


It appears that Clare Mould’s grandmother Clara Louise Ruth Larkin followed her parents and step-father on to the stage in England as a singer and comedian.  She used the stage name Clifton as her father and mother had done.  Apparently Clara Clifton was spotted by producer JC Williamson or his London agents.  Around 1904, Clara Clifton came to Australia as a performer with JC Williamson’s Royal Comic Opera Company.  Clara appears to have remained with the Company until around the time of her marriage to George Cartwright in 1909.


JC Williamson and the Royal Comic Opera Company

The Royal Comic Opera Company was created in Australia by American actor and theatre entrepreneur James Cassius (JC) Williamson (1845-1913).  Between 1881 and 1925 it was the pre-eminent musical comedy company of Australia.  The Company was not named from Royal Patronage but from the Theatres Royal in Sydney and Melbourne which Williamson leased.  Williamson held the production rights to a number of Gilbert and Sullivan operas.


Members of the Royal Comic Opera Company had a hectic schedule.  They were continuously busy and toured Australia and New Zealand for 48 weeks a year.  They were incredibly versatile and soon began to vary their Gilbert and Sullivan repertoire with musical comedy.


In the 1887-88 season the company performed a long season of Gilbert and Sullivan, including The Mikado, Pirates of Penzance, and HMS Pinafore and added performances of La fille du tambour-major (the drum-major’s daughter) and Faust.  In the mid-1890s they varied their musical comedy productions with pantomimes such as Djin-Djin and Robin Hood.


Some of Clara Clifton’s Australian stage roles

Some of Clara Clifton’s Australian stage roles as a singer and comic actor, discovered during research for this article, are listed below.  This list is purely indicative and is by no means complete; nor does it include any of Clara’s earlier performances in England.


·       Kitty Grey, Her Majesty's Theatre, Melbourne, June 1904

·       The Orchid, (playing Caroline) Her Majesty's Theatre, Melbourne, 29 October 1904

·       The Orchid, (playing Caroline) Her Majesty's Theatre, Sydney, March 1905

·       The Girl from Kay's, Her Majesty's Theatre, Sydney, 26 December 1905

·       Veronique, Her Majesty's Theatre Sydney 27 January 1906

·       The Shop Girl, Her Majesty's Theatre, Sydney, 3 March 1906

·       Florodora / P’raps the fatal wedding, Her Majesty's Theatre Sydney, 12 May 1906

·       The Little Michus, Her Majesty's Theatre, Sydney, 2 June 1906

·       The Girl from Kay's (playing Mrs Chalmers), Theatre Royal, Adelaide, 26-28 July 1906

·       Florodora, (playing Lady Holyrood), Her Majesty’s Theatre, Melbourne, 1905‑1906

·       The Shop Girl, Her Majesty’s Theatre, Melbourne, October 1906

·       The Spring Chicken, Her Majesty’s Theatre, Melbourne, 1906

·       The Orchid, (playing Caroline Vokins), His Majesty’s Theatre, Ballarat, 29-30 April 1907

·       The Orchid, (playing Caroline Vokins), His Majesty’s Theatre, Geelong, 2 May 1907

·       The Lady Dandies, Her Majesty's Theatre, Sydney, 4 April 1908.


Clara Clifton and George Lauri (circa 1861-1909) in Veronique.

Edited image from stagewhispers web site.


Miss Clara Clifton Fancy me in Fancy Dress from The Orchid.

Edited image from Talma, Melbourne postcard circa 1908.  Call number PIC Album 998/406, David Elliott theatrical postcard collection from National Library of Australia.


A few of Clara Clifton’s reviews


The Age (Melbourne) Monday 31 October 1904, page 6

Amusements: Her Majesty's Theatre—The Orchid

The cast of The Orchid is remarkable for the number of comedians it contains, and even the singing lady and gentleman—to adopt the old fashioned phrase—are required for once to subordinate their love-lorn solos and ducts to the merry needs of the moment.  In this respect, as in every other, the Royal Comic Opera Company eclipsed its own record, helped thereto by the substantial assistance of the new members of the company.  Among these latter Miss Clara Clifton certainly claims first consideration.  Not wholly unknown here, the part she played in Kitty Grey, good though it was, had not prepared Melbourne for the unqualified success she made of Caroline Voking, a lady of a matrimonial turn, who seeks her affinity in Meakin, or rather in that individual’s faked photograph.  Her methods are admirable, her stage presence commanding, and her artless trick of tempting the audience to laugh with, not at, her proved irresistibly infectious.  She has two of the most catchy songs in the piece, Advertisements and Fancy Dress, for both of which she received the well‑merited compliment of a double encore, and at all points she quickly established herself as a firm favorite…


The Australasian (Melbourne), Saturday 4 March 1905, page 44

Society Doings in Sydney, by Gerda

They went to The Orchid…The joy of the average theatre-goer at seeing the Royal Comic Opera Company back again in Sydney was proved…at Her Majesty’s on Saturday…The public appreciation of Mr Lauri was immense.  Miss Alexia Bassian and Miss Evelyn Scott looked well as the two clandestine brides, Miss Bassian in coral pink, Miss Scott wearing pure white.  Their first song with Mr Jackson, Mr Surrey, and Mr Lauri, Oh Mr Registrar, took with the audience at once.  Miss Clara Clifton became a great favourite as Caroline.  Her songs about advertisements and fancy dresses were encored repeatedly.  Little Mary, sung demurely by Miss Scott and chorus, made another hit…


Geelong Advertiser, Friday 3 May 1907, page 2

His Majesty's Theatre - The Orchid

The successful gaiety piece The Orchid was produced in His Majesty's Theatre last evening by Mr J C Williamson's Royal Comic Opera Company…Miss Clara Clifton as Caroline Voking did splendidly and her two songs In My Time and Fancy Dress were much appreciated…


Clara Clifton with George Lauri.

Edited image from Talma, Melbourne postcard.  Call Number PIC Album 998/407.

David Elliott theatrical postcard collection from National Library of Australia.


The Cartwright family in Melbourne

After their marriage in February 1909, George and Clara Cartwright settled in Melbourne.  From electoral rolls for 1909 and 1912, George and Clara Cartwright then resided at 225 Williams Road, South Yarra.  Here Clara was listed as home duties and George as a manager in 1909 and as an engineer in 1912.


On electoral rolls for 1914, 1915, 1916 and 1919, George and Clara Cartwright were listed as residing at Cromla in Beaconsfield Parade St Kilda.  Here George was listed as an engineer and Clara as home duties.  On electoral rolls for 1921, 1924, 1925, 1926, 1927 and 1928, George and Clara Cartwright were listed as residing at 22 Beaconsfield Parade St Kilda West with George listed as a manager and Clara as home duties.  It is not clear if these later rolls indicated a change of residence or a change in street referencing.


On a 1931 electoral roll, George and Clara Cartwright were listed as residing at 1 Linden Court (Williams Road) Armadale, as manager and home duties, respectively.  On a 1934 electoral roll, George and Clara Cartwright were listed as residing at Lewis Road Wandin as farmer and home duties, respectively.  Also listed on the 1934 roll was their daughter Viby who was then a swimming teacher.  On a 1937 electoral roll, the year George died, only Clara and Viby were listed as residing at Lewis Road Wandin with same occupations as in 1934.  The Cartwright property in Lewis Road Wandin was called Cromla.



As mentioned earlier, Clare Mould’s maternal grandfather George Cartwright died at the Epworth Hospital Richmond on 24 January 1937; he was 57 years of age.  George’s funeral service was held at the Christ Church, 677 Punt Road South Yarra, on 26 January 1937; commencing at 10:45 am with the Reverend Doctor A Law officiating.  Afterwards George’s remains were conveyed to the Necropolis at Springvale for cremation.  George Cartwright’s cremated remains were interred in the Tristania section, Wall 1B, Niche 29 at the Necropolis (which is now called the Springvale Botanical Cemetery).  (George’s funeral arrangements were conducted by B Matthews Pty Ltd of South Yarra.)


Clare Mould’s maternal grandmother Clara Louise Ruth Cartwright died in Melbourne on 13 March 1940; she was 67 years of age.  Prior to her death Clara had been residing at 34 Alma Road St Kilda.  Clara’s funeral service was held on 14 March 1940 at Sleight’s Southern Chapel in St Kilda Road Melbourne; it commenced at 1:45 pm with Reverend CH Murray officiating.  Afterwards Clara’s remains were conveyed to the Springvale Crematorium.  Clara’s cremated remains were scattered at the Crematorium.  (Clara’s funeral arrangements were conducted by AA Sleight Pty Ltd.)




During the research and preparation of this article the following people generously provided assistance:

·       Evelyn Browne, Alan Mould’s younger sister

·       Terry Douglas, Nat Map Technical Officer (1960-1971)

·       Michael Lloyd, Nat Map/AUSLIG Technical Officer (1969-1991)

·       Lawrie O’Connor, Nat Map Technical Assistant (1967-1972)

·       Rosemary O’Connor, Lawrie’s wife

·       Murray Porteous, Nat Map Technical Assistant (1966-1969)

·       Brian Shaddick, Nat Map Field Assistant (1970-1972)

·       Jan Shaddick, Brian’s wife

·       Paul Wise OAM, founder, and editor-in-chief of the XNatmap web site and former Nat Map Senior Surveyor.

The author gratefully acknowledges the kind assistance provided by these people.