Claude King (1920-2018)


National Mapping Surveyor 1972-1985


Prepared by Laurie McLean and Paul Wise


August 2018


Paule and Claude King in Canberra, March 1984.

XNatmap image.


Dr CWB King came to the Division of National Mapping’s Melbourne office in the Rialto Building at 497 Collins Street in early 1972.  He was then 51 years of age.  Dr King, as most Nat Mappers of that era referred to him, was then a world leader in the field of numerical aerotriangulation.  By the mid 1970s Dr King had moved to Canberra to head the Special Projects Section; initially at Queanbeyan and later at Belconnen.  He retired from Nat Map on 3 May 1985; three days before reaching the then compulsory Public Service retirement age of 65 years.


Claude King is remembered as a quietly spoken English gentleman of a retiring, contemplative disposition who tended to surround himself with a trail of pipe smoke as he sat at his desk or walked around the several Nat Map offices in which he worked.  Nevertheless Claude had an astute and inquiring mind and was fluent in a number of languages including English, French and German.  Claude was renowned for his very witty remarks.


At least in part, Claude’s quiet disposition may have been due to his desire to mask a stutter in his speech which was said to be a source of embarrassment for him.  Some Nat Mappers recalled that Claude was always good company at social gatherings where he would occasionally enjoy a glass of red wine.


Nat Map senior technical officer John Ely and his wife Carol recalled having dinner with Claude and Paule at the King’s eastern suburbs Melbourne home in the early 1970s.  John was fascinated with Claude’s domed mantle clock that operated on temperature variations and never needed winding.


Owing to Claude’s retiring nature and the passage of over three decades since he retired from Nat Map in 1985 there are many gaps in the Nat Map community’s knowledge of him.  In this tribute to Claude King the authors have supplemented their personal knowledge with searches of available XNatmap records and with various internet searches.


An important source of information was the recall of several Nat Mappers who knew and worked with Claude King during the thirteen or so years of valuable service he gave to Nat Map.  The sharing of their recollections by these Nat Mappers was greatly appreciated and provided valuable information for this tribute.  Sources used in preparing this article are listed at References below.


Notwithstanding the above limitations, we trust that readers will find this article a fitting and informative tribute to Claude King.


Claude King’s Personal Background


Claude William Bernard King was born in England on 6 May 1920.  His birth was registered on the England and Wales Civil Birth Index at Portsmouth, Hampshire (County) in the United Kingdom for April‑May 1920 in volume 2b on page 962.  On that Index, Claude’s mother’s maiden name was stated as Gunn.


Service in World War II

As a young man Claude King joined the British Army during World War II after earlier having a clerical or similar position in the British Civil Service.  Claude’s childhood hobby interests in navigation and related disciplines started to develop during his war service and became his vocation.  Claude saw active service with the British Army in North Africa, Yugoslavia, and possibly other European theatres.


Claude King was at Tobruk where he taught himself German during the siege.  Claude was also believed to have been attached to the Long Range Desert Group that was formed in Egypt to carry out deep penetration, covert reconnaissance patrols and intelligence missions behind enemy lines in North Africa.


Later in the War Claude was with the Long Range Desert Group in Yugoslavia where it interacted with Tito’s Partisans to defeat the German and collaborating Croatian forces.  (Born Josip Broz in 1892, Tito became the President of Yugoslavia from 1953 until his death in 1980.)


Marriage to Paule Allonier

In the later part of 1946 Claude William Bernard King and Paule Marie-Thérèse Allonier were married in England.  They were aged about 26 and 23 years, respectively.  The England and Wales Civil Registration Marriage Index indicated that their marriage was registered during the period October‑November-December 1946 in the Portsmouth district in volume 6b on page 1114.  Paule Allonier was of French heritage.


Claude and Paule were to have three children: daughter Danielle and sons Yves Louis-Rene and Pierre Marc Francis.  Claude and Paule’s marriage was to last for nearly 68 years until Paule’s death on 29 September 2014 at age 91 years.


Surveying and Academic Qualifications and Professional Affiliations

It is believed that Claude King undertook a course in a surveying related discipline immediately after World War II.  Claude’s course was supported with certain expenses and costs being met from entitlements under the (UK) Servicemen’s Readjustment Act 1944.


Although full details are not available it is known that Claude was awarded a Bachelor of Science degree.  By at least the late 1960s Claude was also awarded the degree of Doctor of Philosophy for his work on numerical photogrammetry specifically his MODBLOCK adjustment program.


Claude was known to be a Fellow of the Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors, London and a Member of the Photogrammetric Society, London.  It is not known if he joined any professional associations in Australia.


Surveying in Nigeria in the 1950s

During at least the early 1950s Claude King worked in Nigeria as a surveyor.  Brief inferences of Claude’s service in Nigeria were gleaned from United Kingdom passenger lists.  However, further details of his time in Nigeria were not available.


On 23 November 1950 Claude King departed Liverpool onboard the Elder Dempster Lines Ltd vessel Accra as a first class passenger bound for Nigeria.  Claude was then a 30 year old surveyor whose United Kingdom place of residence was listed as 80 Orchard Road Portsmouth.  A brief description of the Accra is provided at Appendix A.


On 7 January 1952 Claude King and his family arrived at Liverpool as first class passengers onboard the Accra having departed Lagos, Nigeria and travelled via Takoradi, Freetown and Las Palmas.


The passenger list showed that Claude was a 31 year old surveyor, Paule was a 28 year old housewife and that they were accompanied by their two minor children Danielle and Yves Louis-Rene.  The King family’s place of residence in the United Kingdom was again listed as 80 Orchard Road Portsmouth.


80 Orchard Road is a Victorian cottage terrace house in the suburb of Southsea on Portsmouth Island and about 2.7 kilometres south east of the Portsmouth Historic Dockyard where HMS Victory is moored.  Much of the housing in the area had been destroyed by German bombing during World War II.  An image of 80 Orchard Road in recent times is provided below.


80 Orchard Road Portsmouth United Kingdom.

Google street view image.



Photogrammetry and Mapping in Iran during the 1960s

Between at least the early to the late 1960s Claude King was the Head of Photogrammetry and Mapping with the Iranian Oil Operating Companies and was based in Tehran, Iran.  For a brief summary of the Iranian Oil Operating Companies please refer to Appendix B.


It was while working in Tehran that Claude King developed the MODBLOCK numerical aerotriangulation program.


Further details on when Claude King arrived in and departed from Iran were not discovered.


International Conference Attendances

As a leading photogrammetry expert and surveyor, Claude King would have attended international conferences and symposia relevant to his areas of expertise.  The following are the only such forums where records of Claude’s attendance have been identified:

·       1964: Participant at a Symposium on Aerial Triangulation held at the International Institute for Geo Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC) then located at Delft (between The Hague and Rotterdam) in the Netherlands.

·       1966: Presented a paper on Programming Considerations for Adjustment of Aerial Triangulation at an International Symposium on Spatial Aerotriangulation held at the University of Illinois, Urbana under the auspices of the International Society for Photogrammetry

·       1968: Presented a paper on Test of Aerial Triangulation by the Observation of Independent Models for Large Scale Mapping at the Congress of the International Photogrammetric Society at Lausanne, Switzerland.


CWB King’s Professional Papers

Much of Dr King’s professional writing occurred before the advent of the global internet and world wide web from the late 1980s.  Accordingly only a few of Claude King’s professional papers have been discovered.  While with Nat Map, Claude King coauthored at least two papers with Byrne Ernest Goodrick MBE (1919‑2001) Nat Map’s Chief Executive Officer, Cartography.  The titles of Dr CWB King’s known papers are listed in Appendix C.


Claude King’s Nat Map Service

As mentioned earlier in this article, Claude King attended an international congress on photogrammetry that was held by the International Society of Photogrammetry at Lausanne, Switzerland in July 1968.  At this congress Nat Map Assistant Director Joe Lines was the Australian delegate.  (At the time, Joe was also Chairman of the Australian Photogrammetric Society.)


Although not confirmed, it is likely that Claude and Joe would have met at the congress and would have had mutual interests in aerotriangulation and other photogrammetric matters.


Nat Map Assistant Director Syd Kirkby recalled that Nat Map Director Bruce Lambert OBE (1912-1990) was keen to engage Dr King owing to his numerical aerotriangulation expertise.


Nat Map Service Summary

·       Commenced duty on Friday 14 April 1972 as Surveyor Class 1, Third Division, Position No 62 in the Topographic Survey Branch, Division of National Mapping, Department of National Development, Rialto Building 497 Collins Street Melbourne.

·       Formally appointed to the Commonwealth Public Service as Surveyor Class 1 in the then Department of Minerals and Energy, Victoria on Thursday 8 February 1973 as per Commonwealth of Australia Gazette, No.16, page 55.

·       In the mid 1970s promoted to Surveyor Class 2 (Senior Surveyor), Special Projects Section, Systems Development Branch, Division of National Mapping, Department of National Resources; Canberra.

·       Until 1981 located at Nat Map’s head office in Morisset House, 7‑9 Morisset Street Queanbeyan.

·       From 1981 located at Nat Map’s head office in Unit 3 of the Cameron Offices, Chandler Street Belconnen.

·       Retired as Senior Surveyor, Special Projects Section, Systems Development Branch, Division of National Mapping, Department of Resources and Energy, Canberra on Friday 3 May 1985.


Bringing National Mapping into the numerical aerotriangulation era

From the beginning of its use of photogrammetric mapping techniques circa 1950 until 1979, Nat Map used the slotted template method for block adjustments.  However, throughout the 1970s as electronic data processing methods and computing capacity advanced, Nat Map also looked to the use of numerical block adjustments.


In 1970, in conjunction with the Victorian Department of Crown Lands and Surveys, Nat Map let a contract for the numerical block adjustment of an area in Queensland south west of Rockhampton (Lines, 1992).  However, it was only after Dr CWB King joined Nat Map that the organisation could be said to have entered the numerical aerotriangulation era.


From soon after his arrival in April 1972 Claude King developed National Mapping’s numerical photogrammetric model block adjustment program (MODBLOCK) along with associated programs FORMIT and MODSTRIP.


Photogrammetric model joins along each strip (of pairs of overlapping aerial photographs) were tested by the strip formation program FORMIT.  Where applicable, the joins of such strips to horizontal and vertical survey ground control were tested by the strip adjustment program MODSTRIP.  The final join of strips to each other and to ground control was performed by the block adjustment program MODBLOCK.


Nat Map used Dr King’s MODBLOCK program for some 17 photogrammetric block adjustments ranging in size from one to sixteen 1:250,000 scale map sheet areas.  While the MODBLOCK program was being used to adjust some of these block adjustment areas Nat Map still used its slotted template (graphical) method for other block adjustments.


As mentioned previously, Claude King had developed the MODBLOCK program by the mid 1960s whilst he was Head of Photogrammetry and Mapping with the Iranian Oil Operating Companies in Tehran, Iran.  (For further brief information on these Companies please refer to Appendix B.)  This FORTRAN language program was able to compute a block adjustment of any size within the working space of eight method of least squares adjustment equations.  The only additional data storage requirement over and above that of a single strip was that needed for the solutions of each strip.  These solutions data were column vectors (not arrays).  If there was any shortage of computer storage space these data could conveniently be kept on a tape drive.


Initially in Iran, Dr King’s MODBLOCK program ran on an IBM 1620, small storage, variable word length, decimal computer that was particularly suited to dealing with technical problems.  IBM announced its 1620 series in October 1959 as a relatively inexpensive scientific computer.  Production of 1620 computers continued to November 1970 with about 2,000 machines being made.  There were two models in the 1620 series.  Model I had a core memory cycle of 20 microseconds.  With the introduction of Model II in 1962 this memory cycle was reduced to 10 microseconds.


An IBM 1620 computer circa 1962.

A Printest UK image.


By early 1966 in Iran, the MODBLOCK program ran on an IBM 7040 high speed binary computer and used five tape drives for storage.  IBM had introduced its lower cost, transistorised 7040 series computers in 1963; they ran on 32 bit architecture and allowed the use of high performance peripherals.

AN IBM 7040 computer circa 1965.

Columbia University Archives image.

After running on the IBM 7040 computer, MODBLOCK was subsequently expanded and improved to run on a UNIVAC 1108 computer.  Later, Nat Map ran the MODBLOCK program on a Control Data Corporation (CDC) CYBER 76 computer.


Other Nat Map activities when based in Melbourne

During the time Claude King was based in Nat Map’s Rialto office he was known to have undertaken at least one period of field survey duty.  This field duty was with a field party from the Examination Surveys Section of the Topographic Survey Branch.  The Section’s role included the examination of map detail in the field as a final check before the map compilation material was finalised.  It is believed that Claude undertook map examination field work in Western Australia.


Special Projects Section, Canberra

As mentioned previously, from the mid 1970s until his retirement in 1985, Claude King headed the Special Projects Section as a senior surveyor in Nat Map’s Canberra office.  The Special Projects Section was part of the Systems Development Branch that was led by supervising surveyor Klaus Leppert who reported directly to the Director of National Mapping.  By at least the early 1980s, the Branch’s primary functions were to provide advice on computer hardware, software and computer systems design, and arrange the purchase of automated data processing equipment.


The Special Projects Section was located at Morisset House, 7‑9 Morisset Street Queanbeyan between 1976 to 1981.  At one stage in Queanbeyan the section consisted of Claude King, senior surveyor; John Payne, senior research officer; and Andrew Greenall, principal research officer.  One of the major projects the section worked on was assessment of tenders for Nat Map’s first flatbed scanner-plotter, a Kongsberg GT 5000.  A product of the Norwegian Kongsberg Group, the Kongsberg GT 5000 was then considered to be the state of the art for this equipment.  The GT 5000 was purchased in 1982 and installed in the Cameron Offices in May 1983.  Such was the versatility of this machine that in this era both the Royal Australian Survey Corps and the Royal Australian Navy Hydrographic Office also had Kongsberg GT 5000 plotters.


When the Kongsberg was first tested on the digitising of maps the King Island area was chosen.  Some Nat Map cartographers believed this to be an acknowledgement of Claude King’s contribution to Nat Map obtaining this capability.  But others thought King Island was selected because it was a convenient size to test the program.



The Kongsberg GT 5000 scanner-plotter in Nat Map’s Belconnen office.

XNatmap image.


Topographic repromat was also produced on the Kongsberg using the light head to expose photographic film and a cutting tool to cut mask edges on peel coat material.  Custom made symbol disks were used to flash standard symbols and text onto the film.  Separate plots were produced for each map printing colour.  The Kongsberg also allowed small scale mapping products to be generated in Nat Map’s Canberra office.


Nat Map surveyor Ian Hall was located in the Division’s Dandenong office.  Ian recalled acting as senior surveyor in the Special Projects Section in Queanbeyan.  Periods of higher duties occurred during Claude King’s absences for about two weeks each year between 1977 and 1980.  Ian also recalled Claude King travelled from Canberra to Dandenong periodically to interact with computer systems officers.


In early 1979 Claude King attended a two-week residential course in government administration. The course was held by the University of New South Wales through its Institute of Administration at Little Bay on the northern side of the entrance to Sydney's Botany Bay. The Institute's director was Joshua Owen B Ec MBM (Adelaide) (1932-2012) a renowned early advocate of strategic management theory in Australia. Claude attended the course with fellow Natmappers Alan Thomson and John Madden.


During 1983, supervising surveyor Rom Vassil undertook a review of the operations of the Division of National Mapping.  The review covered the activities of the Division’s Canberra and Dandenong offices.  Claude King made a joint submission to this review with Peter Talty.  Peter was then the head of the ADP Applications Section within the Systems Development Branch.


The King-Talty submission addressed the rationalisation of computer systems within Nat Map’s Canberra and Dandenong offices.  These authors submitted that by reducing the number of large mini and micro computers in the two offices and purchasing two VAX 11/750 operating systems, savings could be achieved by reducing software and equipment support costs and economising on the number of computer systems officers that needed to be employed.


As a consequence of this review submission a Digital Equipment Corporation VAX-11/750 super minicomputer was installed in Nat Map’s Dandenong office to replace the existing Digital Equipment Corporation PDP 11/40 system.  It is understood a similar rationalisation occurred in Nat Map’s Canberra office.


Nat Map’s VAX-11/750 super minicomputer system in the Dandenong Office.

XNatmap image.


Dr King was believed to have been involved in the early development of the National Mapping Council Standard for the Exchange of Topographic Information on Magnetic Tape.  This exchange standard was released in 1978.  However, it built on work undertaken by Nat Map and the Royal Australian Survey Corps from about 1974.  By the mid 1970s such an exchange protocol was also needed for the transfer of digital topographic data between Nat Map and various contractors who captured topographic compilation data in digital format.


In 1979 the National Mapping Council referred its exchange standard to the then Standards Association of Australia for consideration as a national standard.  Subsequently Australian Standard 2482-1981 Interchange of Feature Coded Digital Mapping Data was released by the Standards Association.  As broader user experience with this standard was gained it was revised and a second edition of the standard was released in 1984.


The National Mapping Council’s Technical Advisory Committee considered the need for further refinements to Australian Standard 2482 at meetings in 1984 and 1985.  Shortly before he retired, Dr King provided advice on this matter for the Technical Advisory Committee’s 1985 meeting.  At its October 1985 meeting the National Mapping Council considered the advice on this matter from its Technical Advisory Committee.  As a consequence the Council approached the Standards Association to further revise Australian Standard 2482.  The then Standards Australia released AS2482 as Geographic information systems - Geographic data - Interchange of feature coded digital mapping data in 1989.


Nat Map provided mapping assistance to the Australian Bureau of Statistics for the Bureau’s censuses of Australia’s population and housing that have been conducted at five yearly intervals since 1961.  Nat Map undertook the automation of various census mapping related activities during Claude King’s time with the organisation.  Such automation activities included digitising over 28,000 census collection districts as well as index maps, and census division and subdivision boundaries.  Nat Map also used digital mapping techniques for post census publications such as the Atlas of Population and Housing.


The extent of Claude King’s involvement with the automation of census mapping is not clear.  However, in November 1977 Claude presented his paper The Automated Census Mapping Program to the Fifth Australian Conference on Urban and Regional Planning Information Systems that was held in Canberra, by the Australian Urban and Regional Information Systems Association.  The presentation of this paper suggests that Claude had some level of involvement in this activity.


Life after Nat Map Retirement

As mentioned earlier in this article, Claude King retired from Nat Map on 3 May 1985 some three days before his sixty-fifth birthday.  Afterwards Claude and his wife Paule continued to live in their Canberra home at 72 Hicks Street Red Hill.


The full extent of the activities that Claude pursued in his post Nat Map years is not known.  However, around the late 1980s Claude held an academic position at the University of Canberra.  Located in the Belconnen suburb of Bruce, the University was established in 1967 as the Canberra College of Advanced Education.  It became the University of Canberra under the sponsorship of Melbourne’s Monash University in 1990.  While at the University, Claude collaborated with the reclusive English geodesist Dr Bernard Bowring (1925‑2006) on isometric latitude computations.


Fortunately Claude and Paule were able to enjoy a long retirement.  But sadly later in life Paule became impaired with dementia.  As a consequence of Paule’s condition Claude needed additional care for her and they both moved to reside at Jindalee Aged Care Residence in Goyder Street Narrabundah.  Jindalee was about two kilometres south east of the King’s former Hicks Street residence.


Nat Map senior executive officer John Payne recalled visiting Claude King at Jindalee in 2013.



Sadly, Paule King passed away peacefully at Jindalee Aged Care on 29 September 2014.  She was 91 years of age.  Claude King passed away peacefully at Jindalee on 13 July 2018.  He was 98 years of age.  The remains of Paule and Claude were cremated privately.  Claude and Paule King were survived by their three children: Danielle, Yves, and Pierre; and by their grandchildren.


Members of the Nat Map community extend their sincere sympathies to Claude and Paule’s family members for their sad loss.


Claude King was an esteemed Nat Mapper who in his own quiet and very capable way contributed much to the organisation and to the mapping of Australia.



Appendix A

About the Accra

Accra (III) working cargo at Liverpool Docks.

Image from website.


Accra (III) was built by Vickers-Armstrongs Ltd at Barrow-in-Furness in 1947 for the Elder Dempster Lines Limited of Liverpool.  She was of 11,600 gross tons with a length of about 453 feet and a breadth of 66 feet.  Accra (III) was powered by two Doxford diesel engines and had twin screws.  She could make 15 knots.  The Elder Dempster Lines’ Accra (II) was built in 1926 but was lost in the Atlantic to a torpedo from a German U-Boat (U-34) in July 1940.  Accra (I) was built in 1893 and sold in 1920.




Appendix B

About the Iranian Oil Operating Companies

The Iranian Oil Operating Companies, Tehran were the operating arm of the Iranian Oil Participants Ltd, an international consortium of British, United States and French oil companies established in Iran in the early 1950s.  Another consortium company was the Iranian Oil Services Ltd.  The consortium itself was registered in London and operated in Iran until the 1979 Iranian Revolution.


Some Background

The Anglo–Iranian Oil Company was established in 1901 when British engineer, William Knox D'Arcy, obtained a concession from Persia's Shah.  The concession gave exclusive rights for the discovery, exploitation, and export of petroleum in return for 16 percent of annual profits and £20,000 sterling in cash and another £20,000 sterling in paid-up shares of stock in the venture enterprise.  Oil was discovered in 1903.  In 1905, D'Arcy became a part owner of the newly founded British Oil Company.  In 1908, the British government bought D'Arcy's shares.  In 1909, the Anglo–Persian Oil Company (APOC) was formed, it was later named Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC).  Various disputes between the Company and the Iranian government ensued over the next 30 or so years.


1950s Developments

The Anglo–Iranian oil disputes were not resolved amicably; they culminated in the nationalisation of the British-run Iranian oil industry in 1951 under the premiership of Mohammad Mossadegh.  The National Iranian Oil Company was then formed.  As Mossadegh gained power throughout 1952 and early 1953, the United States and British governments decided that the communist leanings of the Mossadegh government presented reason enough to remove him from power.


British technicians were not replaced, oil ports blockaded, exports of vital goods to Iran were cut off, the country's hard-currency accounts in British banks were frozen, and anti-Iran resolutions were sought from the United Nations and the International Court of Justice.  This campaign only intensified Iranian determination.  Finally, the British turned to Washington.


American President Dwight Eisenhower agreed to send the Central Intelligence Agency to depose Mossadegh.  The joint British/US Operation Ajax took less than a month in the summer of 1953.  At first, this seemed a remarkably successful covert operation.  The Western Powers had deposed (albeit illegally) a leader they didn't like and replaced him with someone who would perform as bidden, namely Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi.


Immediately following the coup, under pressure from the United States and other nations, Britain agreed that Iranian oil be divided among a consortium of companies from several countries.  AIOC was given a 40 percent share, American companies split a 40 percent share, and Royal Dutch Shell and the French Total were granted a 10 percent share each.  The consortium agreed to a 50-50 profit sharing plan with Iran.  The 1954 Islamic revolution nullified the consortium agreement and took control of all oil in Iran through the National Iranian Oil Company.


In 1954 a new agreement divided profits equally between the NIOC and the multinational consortium that was registered as Iranian Oil Participants Ltd.  Essential features of the agreement provided for a consortium holding company, Iranian Oil Participants Ltd, to be incorporated in England where it would also have its headquarters.  The IOP was to be the parent of two wholly owned operating companies, incorporated under the laws of the Netherlands, which would operate the oil industry in southern Iran.  They were the Iranian Oil Exploration and Producing Company, which was to undertake exploration and production; and the Iranian Oil Refining Company, which was to undertake refining.


The operating companies were to be registered in Iran, to have their headquarters there, and to have two Iranian directors on their boards.  They were to operate and manage the oil fields and the Abadan Refinery on behalf of the NIOC, which was to be the owner of the assets.  Another consortium company, Iranian Oil Services Ltd, was to be incorporated in England with its headquarters in London.  Its function was to provide the operating companies with supplies, engineering services, and non-Iranian staff.  Apart from being the owner of the oil industry in the Agreement Area, the NIOC was also responsible for the management of non-basic facilities and infrastructure such as industrial training.  On 3 November 1955 the AIOC was officially renamed the British Petroleum Company.


All Iranian Oil Participants Ltd members acknowledged that NIOC owned the oil and facilities in Iran and that IOP's role was to operate and manage them on behalf of NIOC.  To facilitate that, IOP established the two operating entities incorporated in the Netherlands, and both were delegated to NIOC.  The IOP consortium agreed to share profits on a 50–50 basis with Iran, but not to open its books to Iranian auditors or to allow Iranians onto its board of directors.  The negotiations leading to the creation of the consortium, during 1954-55, were considered a feat of skilful diplomacy.  The IOP was sometimes referred to as the Seven Sisters due to its then dominance in the world’s oil industry.



1970s Developments

In 1973 Iran signed a new 20-year concession with the consortium.  Following the 1979 Revolution that removed Shah Pahlavi, the NIOC took control of Iran’s petroleum industry and cancelled Iran’s international oil agreements.



Appendix C

Some of CWB King’s Professional Papers

King, CWB (1959), Computations of Ground Control for Air Surveys at Large Scales, in Survey Review, Volume 15, No 113, p 128


King, CWB (1965), Survey Computations on a Small Computer, in Survey Review Volume 18, No 136, p 50; No 137, p 120


King, CWB (1966), Altimetric Network Adjustment, in Survey Review Volume 18, No 142, p 366


King, CWB (1966), Programming Considerations for Adjustment of Aerial Triangulation, a paper presented at an International Symposium on Spatial Aerotriangulation held at the University of Illinois, Urbana Ill during 28 February-4 March 1966 under the auspices of the International Society for Photogrammetry’s Commission III and later published in Photogrammetria; No 23,1968, pp 5-8


King, CWB (1967), A Method of Block Adjustment, in The Photogrammetric Record, Volume 5, Issue 29, April 1967, pages 381-384


King, CWB (1967), Traverse Network Adjustments Part 1: Vertical Angle Networks, in Survey Review Volume 19 No 144, p 83ff


King, CWB (1968), Traverse Network Adjustments Part II: Horizontal Angle Networks, in Survey Review Volume 19 No 145, p 132ff


King, CWB and Fondelli, M (1968), Test of Aerial Triangulation by the Observation of Independent Models for Large Scale Mapping presented at the Congress of the International Photogrammetric Society, Commission III, held during 8-20 July 1968, at Lausanne, Switzerland)


King, CWB (1971), Computations of simple figures on sphere and spheroid, in Survey Review Volume 21, No 162, p 146


King, CWB (1977), The Automated Census Mapping Program, paper presented at URPIS FIVE the Fifth Australian Conference on Urban and Regional Planning Information Systems, held at Canberra, 9-11 November 1977; by the Australian Urban and Regional Information Systems Association


King, CWB and Goodrick, BE (1978), An Automated System for Mapping Statistics; in Proceedings of the Third Australian Cartographic Conference, held in Brisbane, 5-6 October 1978, Australian Institute of Cartographers


Goodrick, BE and King, CWB (1978), Thematic Mapping on Demand; in Proceedings of the Third Australian Cartographic Conference, held in Brisbane, 5-6 October 1978, Australian Institute of Cartographers


King, CWB (1988), Computational Formulae for the Lambert Conformal Projection (Parts 1& 2), in Survey Review Volume 29, No 229, pages 323-337, and No 230, pages 387-399




Anonymous (undated), United Kingdom Outbound Passenger Lists Liverpool, 23 November 1950; searched from the Ancestry website at:


Anonymous (undated), United Kingdom Incoming Passenger Lists Liverpool, 7 January 1952; searched from the Ancestry website at:


Anonymous (undated), Petroleum Industry in Iran; an entry on Wikipedia accessed at:


Anonymous (1916-2005), England and Wales Civil Registration Marriage Index 1916-2005; searched from the Ancestry website at:


Anonymous (1916-2007), England and Wales Civil Birth Index 1916-2005; searched from the Ancestry website at:


Australian Electoral Commission (1977-1980), Searches of historic Australian electoral rolls from the Ancestry website at:


Bowring, Bernard Russel (1990), New Ideas on Isometric Latitude, in Survey Review, Volume 30, Number 236, page 270ff


Clarke, Andrew Leigh (1991), Australian Standards for Spatial Data Transfer, pages 28-36 in Moellering, Harold (editor), Spatial Database Transfer Standards: Current International Status, International Cartographic Association Working Group on Digital Cartographic Transfer Standards; published on behalf of the International Cartographic Association by Elsevier Applied Science, Amsterdam, Netherlands


Clarke, Andrew Leigh AO PSM (2018), Personal communications


Commonwealth of Australia (1973), Notification of Appointments, Department of Minerals and Energy, Victoria in the Commonwealth of Australia Gazette, No. 16, 8 February 1973, page 55; accessed at:


Division of National Mapping (1976), The MODBLOCK Programme for Photogrammetric Block Adjustment, paper presented to the Eighth United Nations Regional Cartographic Conference for Asia and the Far East, held at Bangkok, 17-28 January 1977 and published in Volume II, Technical Papers, pages 200-201


Division of National Mapping (1981), Australian Standard for Digital Mapping Data in Statement of Activities 1980-81, Department of National Development and Energy, Canberra


Division of National Mapping (various dates), Statements of Activities, between 1979-1980 and 1985-86, Division of National Mapping, Canberra


Ely, Carol Rosemary (2018), Personal communications


Ely, John Herbert (2018), Personal communications


Encyclopedia Iranica (2004), Oil Agreements in Iran (1901-1978): Their History and Evolution; an entry in Encyclopedia Iranica accessed at:


Hall, Ian (2018), Personal communications


King, CWB (1966), Programming Considerations for Adjustment of Aerial Triangulation, a paper presented at an International Symposium on Spatial Aerotriangulation held at the University of Illinois, Urbana Ill during 28 February-4 March 1966 under the auspices of the International Society for Photogrammetry’s Commission III and later published in Photogrammetria; No 23,1968, pp 5-8


King, CWB (1967), A Method of Block Adjustment, in The Photogrammetric Record, Volume 5, Issue 29, April 1967, pages 381-384


Kirkby, Sydney Lorrimar AO MBE (2018), Personal communications


Lines, John Dunstan (1992), Australia on Paper: The Story of Australian Mapping, Fortune Publications, Box Hill, Victoria, ISBN 0646097695


Malone, James (1981), Mapping for the 1981 Census, Technical Report 30, Division of National Mapping, Department of National Development and Energy, Canberra; accessed from XNatmap website at:


Manning, John PSM (2018), Personal communications


McLean, Lawrence William (2013), John Dunstan Lines 1920 - 2001: A Biographical Sketch of a Nat Map Stalwart; an article on the XNatmap website at:


National Mapping Council (1985), Report of Technical Advisory Committee, Second Meeting, held at Sydney 1-5 July 1985; published on the Council’s behalf by the Division of National Mapping, Canberra


National Mapping Council (1985), Forty Third Meeting, Part 1, Summary of Proceedings, held in Adelaide 15-17 October 1985; published on the Council’s behalf by the Division of National Mapping, Canberra


Payne, John Kevin (2018), Personal communications


Vassil, Romulus Anthony (1984), Review of Operations in the Division of National Mapping; Division of National Mapping, Canberra


Vassil, Romulus Anthony (2018), Personal communications


Veenstra, Con (2018), Personal communications